The Wisdom of God manifested in the Works of the Creation.
I proceed now to select some particular Pieces of the Creation, and to consider them more distinctly.
They shall be only <**135> Two:
I. Whole Body of the Earth
II. Bodies of man. And other Animals.
First, The Body of the Earth, and therein I shall take Notice of, 1. Its Figure. 2. Its Motion. 3. The Constitution of its Parts.
By Earth I here understand not the Dry Land, or the Earth contradistinguished to Water, or the Earth considered as an Element: But the whole Terraqueous Globe, composed of Earth and Water.
I. For the Figure, I could easily demonstrate it to be Spherical. That the Water, which by Reason of its fluidity should, one would think, compose it self to a Level, yet doth not so, but hath a Gibbose Superficies, may to the Eye be demonstrated upon the Sea. For when two Ships sailing contrary ways lose the sight one of another: first the Keel and Hull disappear; afterwards the Sails, and if when upon Deck you have perfectly lost sight of all, you get up to the Top of the Main-mast, you may descry it again. Now what should take away the sight of these Ships from each other but the gibbosity of the interjacent Water ? The roundness of the Earth from North to South is demonstrated from the appearance of Northern Stars above the Horizon, and loss of the Southern to them that travel Northward and on the contrary, the loss of the Northern and <**136> appearance of the Southern to them that travel Southward. For were the Earth a Plain we should see exactly the same Stars where-ever we were placed on that Plain. The roundness from East to West is demonstrated from Eclipses of either of the great Luminaries. For why the same Eclipse, suppose of the Sun, which is seen to them that live more Easterly, when the Sun is elevated 6 Degrees above the Horizon,
should be seen to them that live but one degree more Westerly, when the Sun is but five degrees above the Horizon, and so lower and lower proportionably to them that live more and more Westerly, till at last it appear not at all, no Account can be given, but the globosity of the Earth. For were the Earth a perfect Plain, the Sun would appear Eclipsed to all that live upon that Plain, if not exactly in the same Elevation, yet pretty near it; but to be sure it would never appear to some, the Sun being elevated high above the Horizon; and not at all to others. It being clear then that the Figure of the Earth is Spherical, le us consider the Conveniencies of this Figure.
I. No Figure is so capacious as this, and consequently whose Parts are so well compacted and united, and lie so near one to another for mutual Strength. Now the Earth, which is the Basis of all Animals, and as some think of the whole Creation, ought to be firm, and stable, and solid, and as much as is possible secured from all Ruins and Concussions.
2. This Figure is most consonant and agreeable to the natural Nutus, or Tendency of all heavy Bodies. Now the Earth being such a one, and all its Parts having an equal propension, or connivency to the Center, they must needs be in greatest Rest, and most Immoveable when they are all equidistant from it. Whereas were it an Angular Body, all the Angles
would be vast and steep Mountains, bearing a considerable Proportion to the whole bulk, and therefore those Parts being extremely more remote from the Center, than those about the Middle of the Plains, would consequently press very strongly thitherward; and unless the earth were made of Adamant or Marble, in Time the other parts would give way, till all were levelled.
3. Were the Earth an Angular Body, and not round, all the whole Earth would be nothing else but vast Mountains, and so incommodious for Animals to live upon; for the middle Point of every Side would be nearer the Center than any other; and consequently from that Point which way soever one travelled would be up Hill, the <**138> Tendency of all heavy Bodies being perpendicularly to the Center. Besides, how much this would obstruct Commerce is easily seen: For not only the declivity of all Places would render them very difficult to be travelled over, but likewise the Middle of every Side being lower and nearer the Center, if there were any Rain, or any Rivers, must needs be filled with a Lake of Water, there
being no Way to discharge it, and possibly the Water would rise so high, as to overflow the whole Land. But, surely, there would be much more danger of the Inundation of whole Countries than now there is, all the Waters falling upon the Earth, by Reason of its declivity every Way, easily descending, down to
the common Receptacle of the Sea. And these Lakes of Water being far distant one from another, there could be no Commerce between far remote Countries, but by Land.
4. A Spherical Figure is most commodious for dinetial Motion or Revolution upon its Axis; for in that, neither can the Medium at all resist the motion of the Body, because it stands not in its way, no part coming into any Space but what the precedent left, neither doth one part of the Superficies move faster than another: Whereas were it Angular, the parts about the Angles would find strong resistance from the <**139> Air, and those parts also about the Angles would move much faster than those about the middle of the Plains, being remoter from the Center than they. It remains therefore that this Figure is the most commodious for Motion.
Here I cannot but take notice of the folly and stupidity of the Epicureans, who fansied the Earth to be flat and contiguous to the Heavens on all sides, and that it descended a great way with long Roots; and that the Sun was new made every Morning, and not much bigger than it seems to the Eye, and of a flat Figure, and many other such gross Absurdities as Children among us would be ashamed of.
Secondly, I come now to speak of the Motion of the Earth. That the Earth (speaking according to Philosophical Accurateness) doth
move both upon its own Poles, and in the Ecliptick, is now the received Opinion of the most learned and skilful Mathematicians. To prove the diurnal Motion of it upon its Poles, I need produce no other Argument than, First, The vast disproportion in respect of Magnitude that is between the Earth and the Heavens, and the great unlikelihood, that such an infinite number of vast Bodies should move about so inconsiderable a spot as the Earth, which in comparison with them by <**140> the concurrent Suffrages of Mathematicians of both perswasions, is a mere point, that is, next to nothing.
Secondly, The immense and incredible Celerity of the Motion of the Heavenly Bodies in the Ancient Hypothesis.
Thirdly, Of its Annual Motion in the Ecliptick, the Stations and Retrogradations of the superior Planets are a convincing Argument, there being a clear and facile Account thereof to be given from the mere Motion of the Earth in the Ecliptick; whereas in the Old Hypothesis no account can be given, but by the unreasonable Fiction of E:picycles and contrary Motions; add hereto the great unlikelihood of such an enormous Epicycle as Venus must describe about the Sun, not under the Sun, as the old Astronomers fansied. About the Sun, I say, as appears by its being hid or eclipsed by it, and by its several Phases, like the Moon. So that whosoever doth clearly understand both Hypotheses, cannot, I perswade myself, adhere to the Old and reject
the New, without doing some violence to his Faculties.
Against this Opinion lie two Objections, First, That it is contrary to Sense, and the common Opinion and Belief of Mankind. Secondly, that it seemeth contrary to some Expressions in Scripture. To the first I answer that our Senses are sometimes mistaken, and what appears to them is not <**141> always in reality so as it appears. For Example: The Sun or Moon appear no bigger, at most, than a Cart-wheel, and of a flat Figure. The Earth seems to be plain: The Heavens to cover it like a Canopy, and to be contiguous to it round about: A Fire-brand nimbly moved round, appears like a Circle of Fire; and to give a parallel Instance, a Boat lying still at Anchor in a River, to him that Sails and Rows by it, seems to move apace; and when the Clouds pass nimbly under the Moon, the Moon itself seems tc move the contrary way; And there have been whole Books written in Confutation of vulgar Errors.
Secondly, As to the Scripture, when hpeaking of these things, it accommodates itself to the common and received Opinions, and employs the usual Phrases and Forms of Speech (as all Wise Men also do, though in strictness they be of a different or contrary Opinion) without intention of delivering any thing Doctrinally concerning these Points, or confuting the contrary: And yet by those that maintain the Opinion of the Earths motion there might a convenient Interpretation be given
of such Places as seem to contradict it. Howbeit, because some pious Persons may be offended at such an Opinion, as favouring of Novelty, thinking it inconsistent <**142> with Divine Revelation, I shall not positively assert it, only propose it as an Hypothesis not altogether improbable. Supposing then, that the Earth doth move, both upon its own Poles, and in the Ecliptick about the Sun, I shall shew how admirably its Station and Motion are contrived for the conveniency of Man and other Animals: Which I cannot do more fully and clearly than Dr. More hath already done in his Antidote against Atheism, whose Words therefore I shall borrow.
First, Speaking of the Parallelism of the Axis of the Earth, he saith, I demand whether it be better to have the Axis of the Earth steady and perpetually parallel to itself, or to have it carelessy tumble this way and that way as it happens, or at least very variously and intricately ? And you cannot but Answer me, it is better to have it steady and parallel. For in this lies the necessary Foundation of the Art of Navigation and Dialling. For that steady Stream of Particles, which is supposed to keep the Axis of the Earth parallel to itself, affords the Mariner both his Cynosura and his Compass. The Load-stone and the Load-star depend both upon this. The Load-stone, as I could demonstrate, were it not too great a digression; and the Load-star, because that which keeps the Axis parallel to itself, makes each of the Poles
constantly respect such a Point in the Heavens as for Example, the North-Pole to point almost directly to that which we call the Pole-Star. And besides, Dialling could not be at all without this steadiness of the Axis. But both thes Arts are pleasant, and one especially of mighty Importance to Mankind. For thus there is an orderly measuring of our time for Affairs at home, and an opportunity of Traffick abroad with the most remote Nations of the World and so there is a mutual Supply of the several Commodities of all Countries, Besides the enlarging our Understandings by so ample Experience we get both of Men and Things. Wherefore if we were rationally to consult, whether the Axis of the Earth were better be held steady, and parallel to itself; or left at random, we would conclude it ought to be steady, and so we find it de Facto, though the Earth move floating in the liquid Heavens. So that appealing to our own Faculties we are to affirm, that the constant Direction of the Axis of the Earth was Establiahed by a Principle of Wisdom and Counsel.
Again, there being several Postures of the steady Direction of the Axis of the Earth, viz. either perpendicular to a Plain, going through the Center of the Sun, or <**144> co-incident or inclining, I demand which of all these Reason and Knowledge would make choice of. Not of a perpendicular Posture; for so both the pleasant Variety, and great Convenience of
Summer and Winter; Spring and Autumn, would be lost, and for want of Accession of the Sun, these Parts of the Earth, which now bring forth Fruits, and are Habitable, would be in an incapacity of ever bringing forth any <1717>sith then, the heat could never be greater than now it is at our 10th of March, or the 11th of September, and therefore not sufficient to bring their Fruits and Grain to Maturity,</1717> and consequently could entertain no Inhabitants, and those Parts that the full heat of the Sun could reach, he plying them always alike without any annual Recession or Intermission, would at last grow tired or exhausted, or be wholly dried up, and want moisture, the Sun dissipating and casting off the Clouds Northwards and Southwalds. Besides, we observe that an orderly Vicissitude of Things, doth much more gratifie the Contemplative Property in Man.
And now in the second Place neither would Reason make choice of a co-incident position. For if the Axis thus lay in a Plain that goeth through the Center of the Sun, the Ecliptick would like a Colure or one of the Meridians, pass through the Poles of the Earth, which would put the Inhabitants of the World into a pitiful condition. For they that escape best in the Temperate Zone, would be accloyed with long Nights very tedious, no less than forty Days, and those that now never have their Night above twenty-four Hours, as Friesland
Island, the further Parts of Russia and Norway, would be deprived of the Sun, above a Hundred and Thirty Days together. Ourselves in England, and the rest of the same Clime, would be closed up in Darkness no less than a Hundred or Eighty Days; and so proportionably of the Rest, both in and out of the Temperate Zones. And as for Sumnaer and Winter; though those Vicissitudes would be, yet it could not but Cause raging Diseases, to have the Sun stay so long, describing his little Circles so near the Poles, and lying so hot on the inhabitants, that had been in so long extremity of Darkness and Cold before.
It remains therefore, that the posture of the Axis of the Earth be inclining not perpendicular, not co-incident to the fore-mentiond Plain. And verily, it is not only inclining, but in so fit a Proportion, that there can be no fitter imagined to make it to the utmost Capacity, as well pleasant as habitable. For though the Course of the Sun be curbed between the Tropicks, yet are not those Parts directly subject to his perpendicular Beams, either Unhabitable, or extremely <**146> Hot, as the Ancients fansied: By the Testimony of Travellers, and particularly Sir Waltcr Raleigh, the parts under and near the Line, being as fruitful and pleasant, and fit to make a Paradise of, as any in the World. And that they are as suitable to the Nature of Man, and as convenient to live in, appear from the Longevity of the Natives; as for
Instance, the Ethiopes, called by the Ancients <greek>Machrobioi</greek>; but especially in the Brazilians in America, the ordinary Term of whose Life is a Hundred Years, as is set down by Piso, a Learned Physician of Holland, who travelled thither on purpose to augmcnt Natural Knowledge, but especially what related to Physick. And rcafonable it is, that this should be so, for neither doth the Sun lie long upon them, their day being but twelve Hours, and their Night as long, to cool and refresh them, and besides they have frequent Showers, and constant Breezes, or fresh Gales of Wind from the East.
<1717>It was the Opinion of Asclepiades, as Plutarch reports, that generally the Inhabitants of Cold Countries are longer lived than those of Hot because the cold keeps in the natural heat, as it were locking up the Pores to prevent its Evaporation; whereas in hot Regions the heat is easily dissipated, the Pores being large and open to give it way. Which opinion, because I fnd some Learned Men still to adhere to, I shall produce some further Instances out of Monsieur Rocheforts History of the Antilles Islands, to confirm the contrary, and to shew how often and easily we may be deceivd, if we trust to our own Ratiocinations, how plausible soever, and consult not Experience.
The ordinary Life (saith he) of our Caribbeans is an hundred and fifty years long, and sometimes more. There were some among them not long since living;, who remembred to havc
seen the first Spaniards, that aborded A1nerica, who, we may thence conclude, lived to be at least 160 years old.
The Hollanders who traffick in the Molucca Islands, assure us, that the ordinary term of Life of the Natives there is one hundred and thirty years.
Vincent le Blanc tells us, that in Sumatra, Java, and the neighbouring Islands, the life of the Inhabitants is extended to 140 Years, and that in the Realm of Cassuby it reaches 150. Francis Pirara promotes the life of the Brazilians beyond the Term we have set it, v.g. to 160 years or more, and says that in Florida and Jucatan there are Men found, who pass that age. And it is said, that the French in Laudoniers Voyage into Florida, Anno. 1564. saw a certain old Man, who affirmed himself to be three hundred years old, and the Father of five Generations; "And well he might be of double that number".
Lastly, Mapheous reports, that a certain Bengalese vaunted himself to be 335 years old. So far Monsieur Rochefort. Indeed these two last Instances, being perchance singular and extra-ordinary, do not prove the point; for even among us, where the ordinary term of Life is about threescore and ten, or fourscore, there occur some rare instances of Persons, who have lived 130, 140, 150 Years and more. But the other Testimonies being general, prove it beyond contradiction; neither yet is the thing
in itself improbable; for there being not so great inequality of Weather in those hot Countries, as there is in cold, the Body is kept in a more equal Temper, and not having such frequent Shocks, as are occasiond by such Air, and often changes, and that from one cxtreme to another, holds out much longer. So we see infirm and crazy Persons, when they come to be so weak as to be fixed to their Beds, hold out many Years, some I have heard of, that have laid bed-rid 20 years: because in the Bed they are always kept in an almost equal Temper of Heat, who, had they been exposed to the excesses of Heat and Cold, would not probably have survived one.</1717>
Seeing then, this best posture which our Reason could make choice of; we see really established in Nature, we cannot but acknowledge it to be the issue of Wisdom, Counsel, and Providence. Moreover, a further Argument to evince this is, That though it cannot but be acknowledged, that if the Axis <**147> of the Earth were perpendicular to the Plane of the Ecliptick, her motion would be more easie and natural, yet notwithstanding for the Conveniences fore-mentioned, we see it is made in an inclining posture.
<1717>Another very considerable, and heretofore unobservd Convenience of this inclination of the Earths Axis, Mr. Kiel affords us in his Examination of Dr. Burnets <title>Theory of the Earth</title>, p. 69.
There is (saith he) one more [besides what he had mentioned before] considerable advantage, which we reap by the present position of the Earth, which I will here insert, because I do not know that it is taken notice of by any. And it is, that by the present inclination of the Earths Axis to the Plane of the Ecliptick, we who live beyond 45 degrees of Latitude, and stand most in need of it, have more of the Suns heat throughout the year, than if he had shined always in the Equator, that is, if we take the sum of the Suns actions upon us both in Summer and Winter, they are greater than its Heat would be if he moved always in the Equator or, which is the same thing, the aggregate of the Suns heat upon us while he describes any two opposite Parallels, is greater than it would be if in those two Days he described the Equator. Whereas in the Torrid Zone, and even in the Temperate almost as far as 45 degrees of Latitude, the sum of the Suns heat in Summer and Winter is less than it would be, were the Axis of the Earth perpendicular to the Plane of the Ecliptick. For the Demonstration of which, I refer the Reader to the Book itself.
I think (proceeds he) this Consideration can not but lead us into a transcendent admiration of the Divine Wisdom, which hath placed the Earth in such a posture as brings with it several Conveniencies beyond what we can easily discover without Study and Application: And I
make no question, but if the rest of the Works of Nature were well observed, we should find several advantages which accrue to us by their present Constitution, which are far beyond the uses of them that are yet discovered; by which it will plainly appear, that God hath chosen better for us than we could have done for ourselves.</1717>
If any Man should object and say, it would be more convenient for the Inhabitants of the Earth, if the Tropicks stood at a greater Distance, and the Sun moved further Northward and Southward, for so the North and South Parts would be relieved, and not exposed to so extreme Cold, and thereby rendred uninhabitable as now they are.
To this I Answer, That this would be more inconvenient to the Inhabitants of the Earth in general, and yet would afford the North and South Parts but little more comfort; for then as much as the Distances between the Tropicks were enlargd, so much would also the Arctick and Antartick Circles be enlargd too; and so we here in England, and so on Northerly, should not have that grateful and useful Succession of Day and Night, but proportionally to the Suns coming towards us, so would our Days be of more than Twenty-four hours length, and according to his recess in Winter our Nights proportionable, which how great an inconvenience it would be, is easily seen. <**148>Whereas now the whole Latitude of the Earth, which hath at any time above Twenty-four hours Day, and
Twenty-four hours Night, is little and inconsiderable in comparison of the whole Bulk, as lying near the Poles. And yet neither is that Part altogether unuseful, for in the Waters there live Fishes, which otherwhere are not obvious, so we know the chief Whale-fishing is in Greenland:
<1717>Yea, not only Fish, but great varieties of Water-Fowl, both whole and cloven-footed, frequent the Waters, and feed there, breeding also on the Cliffs by the Sea-side, as they do with us: The Figures and Descriptions of a great many whereof are given us by Martin in his Voyage to Spitzberg, or Greenland.</1717>
And on the Land, Bears, and Foxes, and Deer, in that most Northerly Country that was ever yet touched, and doubtless, if we shall discover further to the very North-Pole, we shall find all that Tract not to be vain, useless, or unoccupied.
Thirdly, The third and last Thing I proposed was the Constitution and Consistency of the Parts of the Earth. And first, Admirable it is that the Waters should be gathered together into such great Conceptacula, and the dry Land appears, and though we had not been assured thereof by divine Revelation, we could not in Reason but have thought such a Division and Separation, to have been the Work of Omnipotencey and infinite Wisdom and Goodness; for in this condition the Water nourishes and maintains innumerable Multitudes of various kinds of Fishes; and the dry Land supports and feeds as
great variety of Plants and Animals, which have their firm Footing and Habitation: Whereas had all been Earth, all the Species of Fishes had been lost, and all those Commodities which the Water affords us; or all Water, there had been no living for Plants, or Terrestrial Animals, or Man himself; and all the Beauty, Glory, and Variety of this Inferior World had been gone, nothing being to be seen, but one uniform dark Body of Water: Or had all been mixt and made up of Water and Earth into one Body of Mud or Mire, as one would think should be most natural: For why such a Separation, as at present we find, should be made, no account can be given, but Providence. I say, had all this Globe been Mire or Mud, then could there have been no possibility for any Animals at all to have lived, excepting some few, and those very dull and inferior ones too. That therefore the Earth should be made thus, and not only so, but with so great variety of Parts, as Mountains, Plains, Vallies, Sand, Gravel, Limes Stone, Clay, Marble, Argilla, etc. which are so delectable and pleasant, and likewise so useful and convenient for the breedig, and living of various Plants and Animals; some affecting Mountains, some Plains, some Valleys, some Watery Places, some Shade, some Sun, some Clay, some Sand, some Gravel, etc. That the Earth should be so figured as to have Mountains in the Midland Parts; abounding with Springs of Water, pouring down Streams and
Rivers for the Necessities and Conveniencies of the Inhabitants of the lower Countries and that the Levels and Plains should be formed with so easie a declivity as to cast off the Water and yet not render Travelling, or Tillage very difficult or laborious. These things, I say, must needs be the result of Counsel, Wisdom and Design. Especially when (as I said before) not that way which seems more ficile and obvious to Chance is chosen, but that which is more difficult and hard to be traced, when it is most convenient and proper for those nobler Ends and Designs, which were intended by its Wise Creator and Governor.
Add to all this, that the whole dry Land is, for the most part, covered over with a lovely Carpet of Green Grass, and other Herbs, of a colour not only most grateful and agreeable, but most useful and salutary to the Eye; and this also decked and adorned with great variety of Flowers of beautiful Colours and Figures, and of most pleasant and fragrant Odours for the refreshment of our Spirits, and our innocent Delight.
<1717>As also with beautiful Shrubs, and stately Trees, affording us not only pleasant and nourishing, Fruits, many Liquors, Drugs, and good Medicines, but Timber and Utensils for all sorts of Trades, and the Conveniencies of Man. Out of many Thousands of which we will only just name a few, lest we should be tedious and too bulky.
First, The Coco, or Coker-Nut-Tree, that supplies the Indians with almost whatever they stand in need of; as Bread, Water, Wine, Vinegar, Brandy, Milk, Oyl, Honey, Sugar, Needles, Thread, Linen, Cloaths, Cups, Spoons, Beesoms, Baskets, Paper, Masts for Ships, Sails, Cordage, Nails, Coverings for their Houses, etc. Which may be seen at large in the many printed Relations of Voyages and Travels to the East Indies, but most faithfully in the <title>Hortus Malabaricus, published by that immortal Patron of Natural Learning, Henry Van Rheede van Draakenstein, who has had great Commands and Employs in the Dutch Colonies.
Secondly, The Aloe Muricata vel Aculeata, which yields the Americans every thing their Necessities require, as Fences and Houses, Darts, Weapons, and other Arms, Shoes, Linen, and Clothes, Needles and Thread, Wine and Honey, besides many Utensils, for all which Hernandes, Garcililasso de la Vega, and Margrave, may be consulted.
Thirdly, The Bandura Cingalensium, called by some the Priapus Vegetabilis, at the end of whose leaves hang long Sacks or Bags, containing a pure limpid Water of great use to the Natives, when they want Rain for eight or ten Months together.
A parallel Instance to this of the Bandura, my Learned and Worthy Friend Dr. Sloane affords
us in a Plant by him observed in the Island of Jamaica, and described by the Title of Viscum Caryophilloides Maximum flore tripetalo pallide luteo, semine filamentoso, which is commonly called, in that Island, Wild Pine, Philosoph.Transact. N. 251. Pag. 114. I shall not transcribe the whote Description, but only that Part of it which relates to this Particular:
"From the Root (which he had described before ) arise Leaves on every side, after the manner of Leeks, or Ananas, whence the Name of Wild-Pine, or Aloes, being folded or enclosed one within another, each of which a is two Foot and an half long, and from a three Inch breadth at Beginning, or base Ends in a Point, having a very hollow, or concave, inward Side, and a round, or convex, outward one: So that by all their hollow Sides is made within a very large Preservatory, Cistern or Basin, fit to contain a pretty Quantity of Water, which in the rainy Season falls upon the utmost Parts of the spreading Leaves, which have Channels in them, conveying it down to the Cistern where it is a kept, as in a Bottle, the Leaves after they are swelled out like a bulbous Root to make the Bottle; bending inward or coming again close to the Stalk, by that means hindring the Evaporation of the Water, by the Heat of the Sun-Beams.
"In the mountainous, as well as the dry low Woods, in Scarcity of Water, this Reservatory
" is not only necessary and sufficient for the Nourishment of the Plant itself, but likewise is very useful to Men, Birds, and all Sorts of Insects, whether in Scarcity of Water they come in Troops, and seldom go away without Refreshment.
"Captain Dampier in his Voyages, Vol. II. of Campeche (tell us) that these Basins made of the Leaves of the Wild Pine, will hold a Pint and half, or a Quart of Water, and that when they find these Pines, they stick their Knives into the Leaves just above the Roots, and that lets out the Water, which they catch in their Hats, as, saith he, I have done many times to my great Relief.
Fourthly, The Cinnamon-Tree of Ceylon, in whose Parts there is a wonderful Diversity: Out of the Root they get a Sort of Camphire, and its Oyl; out of the Bark of the Trunk, the true Oyl of Cinnamon; from the Leaves, an Oyl like that of Cloves; out of the Fruit a Juniper Oyl, with a Mixture of those of Cinnamon and Cloves; besides, they boil the Berries into a Sort of Wax, out of which they make Candles, Plaisters, Unguents. Here we may take Notice of the Candle-Trees of the West Indies, out of whose Fruit, boild to a thick fat Consistence, are made very good Candles, many of which have been lately distributed by that most ingenious Merchant, Mr. Charles Dubois.
Fifthly, The Fountain, or Dropping-Trees, in the Isles of Ferro, St. Thomas, and in Guiny, which serve the Inhabitants instead of Rain and fresh Springs: My honoured Friend Dr Tancred Robinson, in a late Letter to me, is not of Vossiuss Opinion, that these Trees are of the Ferulaceous Kind, because he observes, that by the Descriptions of Eye-witnesses, and by the dryd Sample, lent by Paludanus, to the Duke of Wirtenberg, the Leaves are quite different From those of the Ferulas, coming nearer to the Seseli Ethiopicum Salicis vel Periclymeni folio : Therefore the Doctor rather thinks them to be of the Laurel-kind, though he concludes here may be many different Sorts of these running Aqueous-Trees; because that Phaenomenon does not depend upon, or proceed from any Peculiarity of the Plant, but rather from the Place and Situation ; of which he writes more at large, in a Letter printed in another Ditcourse of mine.
Sixthly, and Lastly, We will only mention the Names of some other Vegetables, which, with Eighteen of Twenty Thousand more of that Kind, do manifest to Mankind the illustrious Bounty and Providence of the Aimighty and Omniscient Creator, towards his undeserving Creatures; as the Cotton-Trees; the Manyoc, or Cassava; the Potatoe; the Jesuits Bark-Tree; the Poppy; the Rhubarb; the Scammony;
the Jalap; the Coloquintida; the China Sarfa; the Serpenatria Virginiana, or Snake-weed; the Nisi, or Genseg; the Numerose Balsam, and Gum-trees, many of which are of late muct illustrated by the great Industry and Skill of that most discerning Botanist, Dr. Leonard Plukenet.
Of what great Use all these, and innumerable other Plants, are to Mankind in the several Parts of Life, few or none can be ignorant; besides the known Uses in Curing Diseases, in Feeding and Cloathing the Poor, in Building, in Dying; in all Mechanicks there may be as many more not yet discoverd, and which may be reservd on purpose to exercise the Faculties bestowd on Man, to find out what is necessary, convenient, pleasant, or profitable to him.
To sum up all in brief: This Terraqueous Globe we know is made up of two Parts,
1. A thin and fluid.
2. A firm and consistent.
The former called by the Name of Watcr; the latter, of Earth, or dry Land. The Land being the more dense and heavy Body, doth naturally descend beneath the Water, and occupy the lower Place; the Water ascends and floats above it. But we see that it is not thus: For the Land, though the more heavy, is forcibly and contrary to its Nature so elevated as to cast of the Water, and stand above it, being
( as the Psalmist phrases it ) Founded upon, or above the Seas, and established above the Floods, Psalm. 24. 2. And this in such manner, that not only on one side of the Globe, but on all sides, there were probably continents ; and Islands raised so equally as to counterbalance one another, the Water flowing between them, and filling the hollow and depressed Places. Neither was the dry Land only raised up, and made to appear, but some Parts (which we call Mountains) were highly elevated above others; and those so dispersed and situated ( as we have shewn) in the mid-land Parts, and in continued Cbains running East and West, as to render all the Earth habitable) a great Part whereof otherwise would not have been so: but the Torrid Zone must indeed have been such a Place as the Ancients fansied it, unhabitable for Heat. Let us now consider how much better it is, that the dry Land should be thus raised up, and the Globe divided almost equally between Earth and Water, than that all its Surface should be one uniform and dark Body of Water. I say Water, because that naturally occupies the superior Place, and not Earth; for were it all Water; the whole Beauty on this inferior world were gone: There could be no such pleasant and delicious Prospeets as the Earth now affords us; no Distinction and grateful Variety of Mountains and Hills, Plains and Valleys, Rivers and Pools, and Fountains; no shady Woods stored with lofty and towering
Trees for Timber; lowly, and more spread ones, for Shade and Fruit: No amicable Verdure of Herbs, bespangled with an infinite variety of specious and fragrant Flowers: For those Plants that grow at the Bottom of the Sea, are for the most part of a dull, sullen and dirty Olive Colour, and bear no Flowers at all. Instead of the elegant Shapes and Colours, the Sagacity and Docility of ingenious Beasts and Birds, the musical Voices and Accents of the Aereal Choristers, there had been nothing but mute and stupid and indocile Fishes, which seem to want the very Sense of Discipline, as may be gathered from them that they are not Vocal, and that there appear in them no Organs of Hearing: It being also doubtful whether the Element they live in be capable of transmitting Sounds, the best Sense they have, even their Sight, can be but dull and imperfect; the Element of Water being Semiopake, and reflecting a good Part of the Beams of Light. The most noble and ingenious Creatures that live there, the Cetaceous Kind, being near akin to Terrestrial Animals, and breathing in the samme Element, the open Air.
Had, I say, all been Water, there had been no Place for such a Creature as Man; as we see there is no such there: There is no Business for him, no Subject to employ his Art and Faculties, and consequently there could be no Effects of them; no such things as Houses and Cities, and stately Edifices, as Gardens and Orchards, and Walls,
Walks and Labyrinths, as Corn-fields, and Vineyards, and the rest of these Ornaments, wherewith the Wit and Industry of Man hath embellished the World.
These are great Things, and worthy the Care and Providence of the Creator; which whoso considereth, and doth not discern and acknowledge, must needs be as stupid as the Earth he goes upon.
But because Mountains have heen lookd upon by some as Warts, and superfluous Excrescencies, of no Use or Benefit ; nay, rather as Signs and Proofs, that the present Earth is nothing else but a heap of Rubbish and Ruins, I shall reduce and demonstrate in Particulars, the great Use, Benefit, and Necessity of them.
I. They are of eminent Use for the Production and Original of Springs and Rivers. Without Hills and Mountains there could be no such Things, or at least but very few: No more than we now find in plain and level Countries ; that is, so few, that it was never my Hap to see one. In Winter time indeed, we might have Torrents and Land-floods, and perhaps sometimes great Inundations, but in Summer nothing but stagnating Water, reserved in Pools and Cisterns, or drawn up out of deep Wells. But as for a great Part of the Earth (all lying within, or near the Tropicks) it would neither
have Rivers, nor any Rain at all: We should consequently lose all those Conveniencies and Advantages that Rivers afford us, of Fishing, Navigation, Carriage, Driving of Mills, Engines, and many others. This end of Mountains I find assigned by Mr. Edmund Halley, a Man of great Sagacity and deep Insight into the Natures and Causes of Things, in a Discourse of his Published in the Philosoph. Transactions, Numb. 192. in these Words: This, if we may allow final Causes, fier [ Hardiment, the Thing is clear, pronounce boldly without any Ifs or Ands ] This seems to be one Design of the Hill, that their Ridges being placed through the midst of their Continents, might serve as it were Alembicks, to distil Fresh Water for the Use of Man and Beast; and their Heights to give a descent to those Streams, to run gently, like so many Veins of the Microcosm, to be the more beneficial to the Creation.
II. They are of great Use for the Generation, and convenient digging up of Metals and Minerals; which how necessary Instruments they are of Culture and Civility I have before shewn. These we see are all digged out of Mountains and I doubt whether there is, or can be any Generation of them, in perfectly plain and level Countries: But if there be, yet could not such Mines, without great Pains and Charges, if at all, be wrought; the Delfs would be so flown with Waters ( it being impossible to make any
Addits or Soughs to drain them) that no Gins or Machines could suffice to lay and keep them dry.
III. They are useful to Mankind in affording them convenient Places for Habitation and Situations of Houses and Villages, serving as Skreens to keep of the cold and nipping Blasts of the Northern and Easterly Winds, and reflecting the benign and cherishing Sun-beams, and so rendering their Habitations both more comfortable and more chearly in Winter; and promoting the Growth of Herbs and Fruit trees, and the Maturation of their Fruits in Summer. Besides casting off the Waters, they lay the Gardens, Yards, and Avenues to the houses dry and clean; and so as well more Salutary, as more Elegant. Whereas Houses built in Plains, unless shaded with Trees, lie bleak and exposed to Wind and Weather, and all Winter are apt to be grievously annoyed with Mire and Dirt.
IV. They are very Ornamental to the Earth, affording pleasant and delightfiul Prospects, both, I. To them that look downwards from them, upon the subjacent Countries; as they must needs acknowledge, who have been but on the Downs of Sussex, and enjoyed that ravishing Prospect of the Sea on one Hand, and the Country far and wide on the other. And, 2. To those that look upwards and behold them from
the Plains, and low Grounds; which what a Refreshing and Pleasure it is to the Eye, they are best able to judge who have lived in the Isle of Ely, or other level Countries, extending on all Sides further than one can ken; or have been out far at Sea, where they can see nothing but Sky and Water. That the Mountains are pleasant Objects to behold, appears, in that the very Images of them, their Draughts and Landskips, are so much esteemed.
V. They serve for the Production of great Variety of Herbs and Trees; for it is a true Observation, That Mountains do especially abound with different Species of Vegetables because of the great Diversity of Soils that are found there, every Vertex, or Eminency, almost affording new Kinds. Now these Plants serve partly for the Food and Sustenance of such Animals as are proper to the Mountains, partly for Medicinal Uses; the chief Physick herbs and Roots, and the best in their Kinds growing there: It being remarkable, That the greatest and most luxuriant Species in most Genera of Plants are Native of the Mountains: Partly also for the Exercise and Diversion of such ingenious and industrious Persons, as are delighted in searching out these natural Rarities; and observing the outward Form, Growth, Natures, and Uses, of each Species, and reflecting upon the Creator of them his due Praises and Benedictions.
VI. They serve for the Harbour, Entertainment, and Maintenance of various Animals, Birds, Beasts, and Insects, that breed, feed and frequent there; for the highest Tops and Pikes of the Alps themselves, are not destitute of their Inhabitants, the Ibex, or Stein-buck, the Rupicapra, or Chamois, among Quadrupeds; the Lagopus among Birds; and I myself have observed beautiful Papilios, and store of other Insects, upon the Tops of some of the Alpine Motmtains. Nay, the highest Ridges of many of those Mountains, serve for the Maintenance of Cattle for the Service of the Inhabitants of the Vallies: The Men there leaving their Wives, and younger Children. below, do not, without some Difficulty, clamber up the Acclivities, dragging their Kine with them, where they feed them, and milk them, and make Butter and Cheese, and do all the Daiery-work, in such sorry Hovels and Sheds as they build there to inhabit in during the Summer Months: This I myself have seen and observed in Mount Jura, not far from Geneva, which is high enough to retain Snow all the Winter.
The same they do also in the Grisons Country, which is one of the highest Parts of the Alps, travelling through which I did not set Foot off Snow for four Days Joulney, at the latter End of March.
VII. Those long Ridges and Chains of lofty and topping Mountains, which run through the whole Continents East and West, (as I have elsewhere observed ) Serve to stop the Evagation of the Vapours to the North and South in hot Countries, condensing them like Alembick Heads into Water, and so by a kind of external Distillation giving Original to Springs and Rivers ; and likewise by amassing, cooling, and constipating of them, turn them into Rain ; by those Means rendring the fervid Regions of the Torrid Zone habitable.
This Discourse concerning the Use of Mountains, I have made use of in another Treatise <margin>The Dissolution of the World</margin>; but because it is proper to this Place, I have, with some Alterations and Enlargements, here repeated it.
I had almost forgotten that Use they are of to Mankind, in serving for Boundaries and Defences to the Territories of Kingdoms and Common-wealths.</1717>
A second Particular I have made choice of more exactly to survey and consider, is the Body of Man: Wherein I shall endeavour to discover something of the Wisdom and Goodness of God; First, by making some general Observations concerning the Body. Secondly, by running over and discoursing upon its principal Parts and Members.
I. Then in general, I say, the Wisdom and Goodness of God appears in the erect Posture of the Body of Man, which is a Privilege and Advantage given to Man, above other Animals. But though this be so, yet I would not have you think, that all the Particulars I shall mention are proper only to the Body of Man, divers of them agreeing to many of the Creatures. It is not rny Business to consider only the Prerogatives of Man above other Animals, but the Endowments and Perfection which Nature hath conferred on his Body though common to them with him. Of this Erection of the Body of Man, the Ancients have taken Notice as a particular Gift and Favour of God.
<latin>Pronaq; cum spectent Animalia caetera terram, Os homini sublime dedit, coelumq; tueri Jussit, et erectos ad Sydera tollere vultus.</latin> Ovid. Metamorphoses.I.
<**152>And before him, Tully in his second Book, De Nat. Deorum.
<latin>Ad hanc providentiam naturae tam diligentem tamq; solertem adjungi multa possunt, <è> quibus intelligatur quantae res hominibus <à> Deo, quamq; eximiae tributae sunt, qui primum eos humo excitatos, celsos et erectos constituit, ut Deorum cognitionem caelum intuentes capere possent. Sunt enim <è> terra homines, non ut incolae atq; habitatores,
sed quasi spectatores superarum rerum atq; coelestium, quarum spectaculum ad nullum aliud genus animantium pertinet.</latin>
Man being the only Creature in this sublunary World, made to contemplate Heaven, it was convenient that he should have such a Figure or situs of the Parts of his Body, that he might conveniently look upwards. But to say the Truth in this respect of contemplating the Heavens, or looking upwards, I do not see what Advantage a Man hath by this Ereetion above other Animals, the Faces of most of them being more supine than ours, which are only Perpendicular to the Horizon, whereas some of theirs stand reclining. But yet two or three other Advantages we have of this Erection, which I shall here mention.
<**153> First, it is more Commodious for the sustaining of the Head, which being full of Brains, and very heavy ( the Brain in Man being far larger in Proportion to the Bulk of his Body, than in any other Animal ) would have been very painful and wearisome to carry, if the Neck had lain parallel or inclining to the Horizon.
Secondly, This Figure is most convenient for Prospect, and looking about one. A Man may see further before him, which is no small Advantage for avoiding Danger, and discovering whatever hc searches after.
Thirdly, The Conveniency of this Site of our Bodies will more clearly appear, if we consider what a pitiful Condition we had been in if we had been constantly necessitated to stand and walk upon all Four; Man being by the Make of his Body, of all Quadrupeds ( for now I must compare him with them) the most unfit for that kind of incessus, as I shall shew anon. And besides that, we should have wanted, at least in a great Measure, the Use of out Hand, that unvaluable Instrument, without which we had wanted most of those Advantages we enjoy as reasonable Creatures, as I shall more particularly demonstrate afterwards.
But it may be perchance objected by some, that Nature did not intend this Erection of the Body, but that it is superinduced and artificial; <**154> for that Children at first creep on all Four, according to that of the Poet,
<latin>Mox Quadrupes, ritisque tulit sua membra serarum.</latin> Ovid.
To which I Answer, that there is so great an Inequality in the Length of our Legs and Arms, as would make it extremely inconvenient, if not impossible, for us to walk up on all Four, and set us almost upon our Heads; and therefore we see that Children do not creep upon their Hands and Feet, but upon their
Hands and Knees; so that it is plain that Nature intended us to walk as we do, and not upon all Four.
2. I argue from the Situs, or Position of our Faces; for had we been to walk upon all Four, we had been the most prone of all Animals, our Faces being parallel to the Horizon, and looking directly downwards.
3. The Greatness and Strength of the Muscles of the Thighs and Legs above those of the Arms, is a clear Indication that they were by Nature intended for a more difficult and laborious Action, even the moving and transferring the whole Body, and that Motion to be sometimes continued for a great while together.
<**155>As for that Argument taken from the contrary Flexure of the Joints of our Arms and Leas to that of Quadrupeds, as that our Knees bend forward, whereas the same joint of their Hindlegs bends backward; and that our Arms bend backward, whereas the Knees of their Fore-legs bend forward. Although the Observation be as old as Aristotle, because I think there is a Mistake in it, in not comparing the same Joints ( for the First or uppermost joint in a Quadrupeds Hind-legs bends forward, as well as a Mans Knees, which Answer to it, being the uppermost Joint of our Legs; and the like mutatis mutandis may be said of the Arms) I shall not insist upon it.
<1717>Another Particular which may serve to demonstrate that this erect Posture of the Body of Man was intended and designed by the Wise and Good Author of Nature, is the Fastning of the Cone of the Pericardium to the Midriff : An Account whereof I shall give the Reader out of the ingenious Dr. Tysons Anatomy of the Orang-Outang, or Pygmie, p. 49.
Vesalius (saith he) and others make it a Peculiarity to Man, that the Pericardium, or Bag that incloses the Heart, should be fastned to the Diaphragm. Vesalius tells us, (De Corporis Humani fabrica, lib. 6. cap. 8.) <latin>Caeterum involucri mucro, et dextri ipsius lateris egregia portio Septi transversi nerveo circulo validissime amploque admodum spatio connascitur, quod Hominibus est peculiare.</latin>
The Point of the Pericardium, and a very considerable Portion of its right side, is most firmly fastned to the nervous Circle of the Midriff for a large Space, which is peculiar to Mankind.
So Blancardius Anat. reformat. cap. 2. p. 8. <latin>Homo prae caeteris Animalibus hoc peculiare habet, quod eius Pericardium Septi transversi medio semper, accrescat cum idem in Quadrupedum genere librum et aliquanto spatio ab ipso remtum sit: Man hath this peculiar to him, and different from other Animals, that his Pericardium doth always grow to the Middle of the Midriff; whereas in the Quadruped-kind it is free and removed some Distance from it.
The Pericardium in Man is therefore thus fastned, that in Expiration it might assist the
Diastole of the Diaphragm: For otherwise the Liver and Stomach being so weighty, they would draw it down too much towards the Abdomen, so that, upon the Relaxation of its Fibres in its Diastole, it would not ascend sufficiently into the Thorax, so as to cause a Subsidency of the Lungs by lessening the Cavity there.
In Quadrupeds there is no need of this Adhesion of the Pericardium to the Diaphragm; for in them, in Expiration, when the Fibres of the Diaphragm are relaxed, the Weight of the Viscera of the Abdomen will easily press the Diaphragm up into the Cavity of the Thorax, and so perform that Service. Besides, were the Pericardium fastned to the Diaphragm in Quadrupeds, it would hinder its Systole in Inspiration, or its Descent downwards upon the Contraction of its Muscular Fibres; and the more, because the Diaphragm being thus tied up, it could not then so freely force down the Weight of the Viscera, which are always pressing upon it, and consequently not sufiiciently dilate the Cavity of the Thorax, and therefore must hinder their Inspiration. Thus we see how necesary it is, that in Man, the Pericardium should be fastened to the Diaphragm, and in Quadrupeds how inconvenient it would be.
And since we find this Difference between the Hearts of Brutes and Men in this particular, how can we imaginc but that it must needs be the Effect of Wisdom and Design, and that Man was intended by Nature to walk erect, and not upon all Four, as Quadrupeds do ?
II. The Body of Man may thence be proved to be the Effect of Wisdom because there is nothing in it deficient, nothing, superfluous, nothing but hath its End and Use. So true are those Maxims we have already made use of, <latin>Natura nihil facit frustra, and Natura non abundat in superfluis, nec deficit in necessariis,</latin> no Part that we can well spare. "The Eye cannot say to the Hand, I have no need of thee, nor the Head to the Feet I have no need of you," I Cor. xii. 21. that I may usurp the Apostles Similitude.
The Bellv cannot quarrel with the Members, nor they with the Belly for her seeming <**156> Sloth; As they provide for Meat for her, so she concocts and distributes it to them. Only it may be doubted to what use the Paps its Men should serve. I Answer, partly for Ornament, partly for a kind of Conformity between the Sexes, and partly to defend and cherish the Heart; in some they contain Milk, as in a Danish Family we read of in Bartholines Anatomical Observations. However, it follows not that they or any other Parts of the Body are useless because we are ignorant.
<1717>I have lately met with a Story in Seignior Paulo Boccone his Natural Obserrvations, printed at Bologna in Italy, 1684. well attested, concerning a Country-man, called Billardino di Billo, living in a Village belonging to the City of Nocera in Umbria, called Somareggio, whose Wife dying, and leaving a young Infant, he nourished it with his own Milk. This
Man, either because in the small Village where he lived there was not a wet Nurse to be had, or because he was not able to hire one, took the Child, and applying it to his own Bosom, and putting the Nipples of his Breasts into its Mouth, invited it to suck, which the Infant did, and after divers times drawing, fetchd some Milk; whereat the Father encouraged, continued to apply it, and so after a while it brought down the Milk so plentifully as to nourish it for many Months, till it was fit to be weaned. Hereupon my Author having proved by sufficient Authority of able Anatomists, such as Franciscus Maria Florentinus, and Marcellus Malpighius, that the Paps of Men have the same Structure and the same Vessels with those of Women, concludes, that Nature hath not given Paps to Men, either to no Purpose, or for meer Ornament, but, if Need requires, to supply the Defect of the Female, and give Suck to the Young.
Had we been born with a large Wen upon our Faces, or a Bavarian Poke under our Chins, or a great Bunch upon our Backs like Camels, or any the like superfluous Excrescency; which should be not only useless but troublesome, not only Stand us in no stead, but also be ill-favoured to behold, and burdensome to carry about, then we might have had some Pretence to doubt whether an intelligent and bountiful Creator had been our Architect; for had the Body been made by Chance, it must in all
Likelihood have had many of these superfluous and unnecessary Parts.
But now seeing there is none of our Members but hath its Place and Use, none that w could spare, or conveniently live without were it but those we account Excrements, <**157> the Hair of our Heads, or the Nails on our Fingers ends; we must needs be mad or sottish if we can conceive any other than that an infinitely Good and Wise God was our Author and Former;
III. We may fetch an Argument of the Wisdom and Providence of God from the convenient Situation and Disposition of the Parts and Members of our Bodies: They are seated most conveniently for Use, for Ornament, and for mutual Assistance. First, for Use; so we see the Senses of such eminent Use for our Well-being, situate in the Head, as Sentinel in a Watch-Tower, to receive and convey to the Soul the Impressions of External Objects.
<latin>Sensus autem interpretes ac nuntii rerum in capite tanquam in arce mirifice ad usus necessarios et facti et collati sunt.</latin> Cicero. de Nat. Deorum. The Eye can more easily see Things at a Distance, the Ear receives Sounds from afar: How could the Eye have been better placed either for Beauty and Ornament, or for the Guidance and Direction of the whole Body. As Cicero proceeds well, <latin>Nam Oculi tanquam speculatores altissimum locum obtinent, ex quo plurima conspicientes funguntur suo munere:
Et Aures quoe sonum recipere debent, qui natura in sublime fertur, recte in altis corporum partibus collocatae sunt; itemq; Nares, <**158> eo quo omnis odor ad superiora fertur, recte sursum sunt.</latin> For the Eyes, like Sentinels occupy the highest Place, from whencc seeing many things they perform their Functions: And the Ears, which are made for the Reception of sounds, which naturally are carried upwards, are righly placed in the uppermost Parts of the Body; also the Nostrils, because all Odors ascend, are fitly situate in the superior Parts.
I might instance in the other Members: How could the Hands have been more conveniently placed for all Sorts of Exercises and Works, and for the Guard and Security of the Head and principal Parts ? The Heart, to dispense Life and Heat to the whole Body, viz. near the Center, and yet because it is harder for the Blood to ascend than descend, somewhat nearer the Head. It is also observable, that the Sinks of the Body are removed as far from the Nose and Eyes as may be, which Cicero takes Notice of in the fore-mentioned Place.
<latin>Ut in AEdificiis Architecti overtunt ab Oculis et Naribus Dominorum ea quae profluentia necessario essent tetri aliquid habitura, sic natura res similes procul amandavit à sensibus.
Secondly, For Ornament. What could have been better contrived, than that those Members which are Pairs, should stand by one another in equal Altitude, and <**159> answer on each Side one to another ? And,
Thirdly, For mutual Assistance. We have before shewed how the Eye stands most conveniently for guiding the Hand, and the Hand for defending the Eye; and the like might be said of the other Parts, they are so situate to afford Direction and Help one to another. This will appear more clearly, if we imagine any of the Members situate in contrary Place or Positions; Had a Mans Arms been fitted only to bend backwards behind him; or his Leg only to move backwards, what Direction could his Eyes then have afforded him in Working or Walking ? Or how could he then have fed himself ? Nay, had one Arm been made to bend forward, and the other directly backward, we had then lost half the Use of them since they could not have assisted one the other in any Action. Take the Eyes, or any other of the Organs of Sense, and see if you can find any so convenient a Seat for them in the whole Body, as that they now possess.
IV. From the ample Provision that is made for the Defence and Security of the principal Parts: Those are, I . The Heart; which is the Fountain of Life and Vegetation, <latin>Officina spirituum vitalium, principum et fons caloris nativi, lucerna humidi radicalis;</latin> <**160> and that I may speak with the Chymists, ipse Sol Microcosmi, the very Sun of the Microcosme or little World, in which is contained that Vital Flame or Heavenly Fire, which Prometheus is fabled to have stole from Jupiter; or as Aristotle
phrases it, that <greek> Aialogon tO tOn aplanOn zoicheiO </greek>, <latin>Divinum quid respondens Elemento Stellarum</latin>. This for more Security is situate in the Center of the Trunk of the Body, covered first with its own Membrane, called Pericardium, lodged within the soft Bed of the Lungs, encompassed round with a double Fence, ( 1.) Of firm Bones or Ribs to bear off Blows: (2.) Of thick Muscles and Skins, Besides the Arms, conveniently placed to fence of any Violence at a Distance before it can approach to hurt it.
2. The Brain, which is the Principle of all Sense and Motion, the Fountain of the Animal Spirits, the chief Seat and Palace Royal of the Soul upon whose Security depends whatever Privilege belongs to us as Sensitive or Rational Creatures. This, I say, being the prime and immediate Organ of the Soul, from the right Constitution whereof proceeds the Quickness of Apprehension, Acuteness of Wit, Solidity of Judgment, Method and Order of Invention, Strength and Power of Memory ; which if once weakened and Disordered, <**161> there follows nothing but Confusion and Disturbance in our Apprehensions, Thoughts and Judgments, is environed round about with such a potent Defence, that it must be a mighty Force indeed that is able to injure it.
1. A Skull so hard, thick, and tough, that it is almost as easy to split a Helmet of Iron as to make a Fracture in it.
2. This covered with Skin and Hair, which serve to keep it warm, being naturally a very cold Part, and
also to quench and dissipate the Force of any Stroke that shall be dealt it, and retund the Edge of any Weapon.
3. And yet more than all this, there is still a thick and tough Membrane which hangs looser about it, and doth not so closely embrace it, (that they call dura mater ) and in case the Skull happens to be broken, doth often preserve it from Injury and Diminution: And, lastly, a thin and fine Membrane strait and closely adhering, to keep it from quashing and shaking. <1717> The many Pairs of Nerves proceeding frorn it, and afterwards distributing and branching themselves to all the Parts of the Body, either for Nutrition or Motion, are wonderful to behold in prepared Bodies, and even in the Schemes and Figures of Dr. Mills and Vieusens. </1717>
I might `instance (3.) in the Lungs, which are so useful to us, as to Life and Sense, that the Vulgar think our Breath is our very Life and that we breathe out our Souls from thence. Suitable to which Notion, both anima and spiritus in Latin, and pneuma in Greek, are derived from Words that signify <**162> Breath and Wind: And esslare or exhalare animam signifies to die. And the old Romans used to apply Mouth to Mouth, and receive the last Gasps of their dying Friends, as if their Souls had come out that way. From hence, perhaps, might first spring that Opinion of the Vehicles of Spirits; the Vulgar, as I hinted before, conceiving that the Breath was, if not the Soul itself, yet that wherein it was wafted and carried away. These Lungs,
I say, are, for their better Security and Defence, shut up in the same Cavity with the Heart.
V. In the abundant Provison that is made Against evil Accidents and Inconveniences. And the Liberality of Nature, as to this Particular, appears, 1. In that she hath given many Members, which are of eminent Use, by Pairs, as two Eyes, two Ears, two Nostrils, two Hands, two Feet, two Breasts, [Mammae] two Reins; that so, if by any cross or unhappy Accident one should be disabled or rendred useless, the other might serve us tolerably well; whereas had a Man but one Hand, or one Eye, etc. if that were gone, all were gone, and we left in an evil Case. See then, and acknowledge the Benignity of the Deity, who hath bestowed upon us two Hands, and two Eyes, and other the like Parts, not only for our Necessity <**163> but Conveniency, so long as we en)oy them; and for our Security, in case any Miscance deprive us of one of them. 2. In that all the Vessels of the Body have many Ramifications: Which particular Branches, though they serve mainly for one Member or Muscle, yet send forth Some Twigs to the neighbouring Muscles; and so interchangeable the Branches that serve these, send to them. So that if one Branch chance to be cut off or obstructed, its Defect may, in some measure, be supplied by the Twigs that come from the neighbouring Vessels. 3. In that she hath provided
so many ways to evacuate what migh be hurtful to us, or breed Diseases in our Bodies. If any thing oppress the Head, it hath a Power to free itself by Sneezing: If any thing fall into the Lungs, or if any Humour be dischargd upon them, they have a Faculty of clearing themselves, and casting it up by Coughing: If any thing clog or burden the Stomach it hath an Ability of contracting itself, and throwing it up by Vomit. Besides these ways of Evacuation, there are Siege, Urine, Sweating, Haemorrhoigies from the Nose, and Haemorrhoidal Veins, Fluxes of Rheum. Now the Reason why Nature hath provided so many ways of Evacuation, is, because of the different Humours that are to be voided or cast out. <**164> When therefore there is a Secretion made of any noxious Humour, it is carried off by that Emunctory whose Pores are fitted to receive and transmit the minute Parts of it; if at least this Separation be made by Percolation, as we will now suppose, but not assert. Yet I doubt not but the same Humour may be cast off by divers Emunctories, as is clear in Urine and Sweat which are for the main the same Humour carried off several ways,
<1717>To this Head of Provision against Inconveniences, I shall add an Observation or two concerning Sleep.
I. Sleep being necessary to Man and other Animals for their Refreshment, and for the Reparation of that great Expence of Spirits, which
is made in the day-time, by the constant Exercise of the Senses and Motions of the Muscles, that it might ease and refrexh us indeed; Nature hath provided, that tho we lie long upon one side, we should have no Sense of Pain or Uneasiness during our Rest, no, nor when we awake. Whereas in Reason one would think, that the whole Weight of the Body pressing the Muscles and Bones on which we lie, should be very burdensome and uneasy, and create a grievous Sense of Pain; and we find by Experience that it doth so, when we lie long awake in the Night, we being not able (especially if never so little indisposed) to rest one quarter of an Hour in the same Posture without shifting of Sides, or at least etching this way and that way, more or less. How this may be effected is a great Question. To me it seems most probable, that it is done by an Inflation of the Muscles, whereby they become both soft, and yet renitent like so many Pillows, dissipating the Force of the Pressure, and so preventing or taking away the Sense of Pain. That the Muscles are in this manner inflated in time of Rest, appears to the very Eye in the Faces of Children, and may be proved from that when we Rest in our Clothes, we are fain to loosen our Garters, Shoo-Strings, and other Ligatures, to give the Spirits free Passage, else we shall experience Pain and Uneasiness in those Parts, which when we are waking we find not.
The Reason of this Phaenomeon, viz. that <greek>analgEsia</greek>, or want of Pain, we experience in Sleep, during and after a long decubitus on one Side, Dr. Lister in his <title>Journey to Paris, p.113. and Dr. Jones in his Treatise of the Mysteries of Opium revealed, attribute to the Relaxation of the Nerves and Muscles in time of Sleep; and the Sense of Pain and Uneasiness when we lie awake to the Tension of them during that time. This I do not deny, but yet I think the Reason I have assigned hath a great Interest in that Rest and Easiness we enjoy when asleep.
2. Because Sleep is inconsistent with the Sense of Pain, therefore during Rest, those Nerves which convey that Motion to the Brain, which excites in the Soul a Sence of Pain, are obstructed. This I myself have had frequent Experience of, since I have been troubled with Sores on my Legs. Upon sudden awakening, finding myself at perfect Ease, and void of all Sense of Pain for a Minutes time or more, the Pain then by degrees returning, which I could attribute to nothing but the dessipating that Vapour, or uhatever else it were, which obsructed the Nerves, and giving the dolorific Motion free Passage again.
Upon sesond Thoughts, and reading what Dr. Lister and Dr. Jones have written concerning this Subject, I rather incline to believe, that the Motion causing a Sense of Pain, is conveyd to the brain by the Nerves themselves in Tension,
as we see in Cords, any the least Touch at one End passes Speedily to the other when they are stretchd, which it doth not when they are relaxed, and not by the Spirits passing through them: And on the other tide, the Unsensibleness of Pain proceeds rather from the Relaxation of the Nerves than their Obstruction. But yet this Tension of the Nerves and Muscles is owing to the Spirits flowing down into them, and distending them. </1717><1691=164>
VI. From the Constancy that is observed in the Number, Figure, Place, and Make of all the principal Parts; and from the Variety in the less. Man is always mending and altering his Works: But Nature observes the same Tenor, because her Works are so perfect, that there is no Place for Amendments; nothing that can be reprehended. The most Sagacious Men in so many Ages, have not been able to find any Flaw in these Divinely contrived and formed Machines, no Blot or Error in this great Volume of the World, as if any thing had been an imperfect Essay at the first, to use the Bishop of Chesters words: Nothing that can be altered for the better; nothing but if it were altered would be marred. This could not have been, had Mans Body been the Work of Chance, and not Council and Providence. Why should there be constantly the same Parts ? Why should they retain constantly the same Places? And why should they be endued with the same Shape and Figure ? Nothing so contrary
as Constancy and Chance. Should I see a Man throw the same Number a thousand times together upon but three Dice, could you Persuade me that this were Accidental, and that there was no necesary Cause of it ? How much more incredible then is it, that Constancy in such a Variety, such a Multiplicity of Parts, should be the Result of Chance ? Neither yet can these Works be the Effects of Necessity or Fate, for then there would be the same Constancy observed in the Smaller as well as the larger Parts and Vessels; whereas there we see Nature doth ludere, as it were, sport itself; the minute Ramifications of all the Vessels, Veins, Arteries, and Nerves, infinitely varying in Individuals of the same Species, so that they are not in any two alike.
VII. The great Wisdom of the Divine Creator appears, in that there is Pleasure annexed th those Actions that are necessary for the Support and preservation of the Individuum, and the Continuation and Propagation of the Species; and not only so, but Pain to the Neglect or Forbearance of them. For the Support of the Person, <**166> it hath annexd Pleasure to Eating and Drinking; which else, out of Laziness or Multiplicity of Business, a Man would be apt to neglect, or sometimes forget. Indeed, to be obliged to chew and swallow Meat daily for two Hours space, and to find no relish or pleasure in it, would be one of the most burdensome and ungrateful Tasks of a Mans whole
Life. But because this Action is absolutely necessary, for abundant security Nature hath inserted in us a Painful sense of Hunger to put us in mind of it, and to reward our Performance hath adjoined Pleasure to it. And as for the Continuation of Kind, I need not tell you, that the Enjoyments which attend those Actions are the highest Gratifications of Sense.
VIII. The wonderful Art and Providence of the Contriver and Former of our Bodies, appears in the Multitude of Intentions he must have in the Formation of the several Parts, or the Qualifications they require, to fit them for their several Uses. <margin>Bishop of chester, Nat Rel. lib.1. c.6. </margin> Galen in his book De Formatione Foetus, "takes
notice, That there are in a humane Body above Six hundred several Muscles, and there are at least Ten several Intentions or due Qualifications to be observed in each of these; proper Figure, just Magnitude, right Disposition <**167> of its Several Ends, upper and lower, Potition of the whole, the Insertion of its proper Nerves, Veins, and Arteries, which are each of them to be duly placed; so that about the Muscles alone, no less than Six thousand several Ends or Aims are to be attended to. The Bones are reckoned to be 284. The distinct Scopes or Intentions in each of these are above 40, in all about 100,000. And thus it is in some Proportion with all the other Parts, the Skin, Ligaments, Vessels, Glandules, Humors:
But more especially with the several Members of the Body, which do, in regard of the great Variety and Multitude of those several Intentions required to them, very much exceed the homogeneous Parts. And the failing in any one of these would cause Irregularity in the Body, and in many of them such as would be very notorious."
Now to imagine that such a Machine composed of so many Parts, to the right Form, Order and Motion whereof such an infinite Number of Intentions are required, could be made without the Contrivance of some Wise Agent, must needs be irrational in the highest Degree.
<1717>This wonderful Mechanism of humane Bodies, next to viewing the Life, may be seen at large in the excellent Figures of Spigelius and Bidloo; their Situation, Order, Connexion and Manner of separating them, in Lyserus his Cult. Anatom. The almost infinite Ramifications, and Inosculations of all the several sorts of Vessels, the Structures of the Glands, and other Organs, may easily be detected by Glasses, and tracd by blowing in of Air, and drawing them, or by injecting through peculiar Syringes, melted Wax, or Quicksilver; the Operations whereof may be learnt out of Swammerdam, Caspar Bartholine, and Antonio Nuck.
IX. Another Argument of Wisdom and Design in Contrivance of the Body of Man, and other Animals, is the Fitting of some Parts to divers Offices and Uses, whereby Nature doth
(as the Proverb is) <latin>Una fidelia duos parietes dealbare</latin>; Stop two Gaps with onc Bush. So, for Instance, the Tongue serves not only for Tasting, but also to assist the Mastication of the Meat and Deglutition, by turning it about, and menaging it in the Mouth, to gather up the Food in Man by licking; in the Dog and Cat-kind by lapping ; in Kine, by plucking up the Grass : Particularly in Man, it is of admirable Use for the Formation of Words and Speaking.
The Diaphragm and Muscles of the Abdomen, or lower Belly, are of Use, not only for Respiration, but also for compressing the Intestines, and forcing the Chyle into the lacteal Veins, and likewise out of the said Veins into the thoracick Chanel: And here, to note that by the way, appears the Use of a common receptacle of Chyle, that by the Motion of the Muscles of Respiration, it being pressed upon, the Chyle might with more facility be impelled into the forementiond Duct. Besides, this Action of Respiration and Motion of the said Diaphragm and Muscles, may serve also for the Comminution and Concoction of the Meat in the Stomach (as some, not without Reason, think) by their constant Agitation and Motion upwards and downwards, resembling the pounding or braying of Materials in a Mortar.
And to instance in no more, the muscular Contraction and Pulse of the Heart serves not only for the Circulation of the Blood, but also for
for the more perfect Mixture of its Parts, preserving its due Crasis and Fluidity, and incorporating the Chyle and other Juices it receives with it.
X. The Wisdom and Goodness too of the Divine Former of our Bodies appears in the Nourishment of them: For that Food which is of a wholesome Juice, and proper to nourish and preserve them in a healthful State, is both pleasant to the Taste, and grateful and agreeable to the Stomach, and continues to be so till our Hunger and Thirst be well appeased, and then begins to be less pleasant, and at last even nauseous and loathsome. The full stomach loathes the Honey-comb.
On the other side, that which is unwholsome and unfit for Nourishment, or destructive of Health, is also unpleasant to the Taste, and ungrateful and disagreeable to the Stomach, and that more or less according as it is more or less improper or noxious. And though there be some sorts of Food less Pleasant to the Taste, which by Use may be rendred grateful; yet to Persons that are in Health, and in no necessity of using such Viands, I think it were better to abstain from them, and follow Nature in eating such Things as are agreeable to their Palate and Stomach: For such unpleasant Diet must needs alter the Temper of the Body, before it can become acceptable; and doubtless for the worse.
I might add hereto, that even Pain, which is the most grievous and afflictive thing that we are sensible of, is of great use to us. God hath annexed a Sense of Pain to all Diseases and Harms of the Body inward and outward, (and there is no Pain but proceeds from some Harm or Disease) to be an effectual Spur to excite and quicken us to seek for speedy Help or Remedy; and hath so orderd it, that ae the Disease heals, so the Pain abates. Neither doth Pain provoke us only to seek ease and Relief when we labour under it, but also makes us careful to avoid for the future all such things as are productive of it; that is, such things as are hurtful to our Bodies, and destructive of the Health and Well-being of them, which also are, for the most part, prohibited by God, and so sinful and injurious to our Souls.
So we see what Care the Divine Providence hath taken, and what effectual Means it hath used for the Healing of our Diseases, and the maintenance and Preservation of our Health. This is the true Reason of Pain: Howbeit, I will not deny, but that God doth sometimes Himself immediately inflict Diseases, even upon his own Children, for many good Considerations which I shall not here enumerate. Neither shall I mention the Uses that Parents and Masters make of it, for the correcting their Children and Servants, or Magistrates for the punishing of Malefactors, they being beyond my Scope; only I cannot but take Notice, that it is a <greek>posuchrEson</greek> a thing of manifold Uses, and
necessary for the Government both of Commonwcalths and Families. </1717>
XI. Some fetch an Argument of Providence from the Variety of Lineaments in the Faces of Men, which is such, that there are not two Faces in the World absolutely alike; which is somewhat strange, since all the Parts are in Species the same. Were Nature a blind Architect, I see not but the Faces of some Men might be as like, as Eggs laid by the same Hen or Bullets cast in the same Mould, or Drops of Water out of the same Bucket. This Particular I find taken notice of by Pliny in his Seventh Book, Cap. I. in these Words: <latin>Iam in facie vultuque nostro, cum sint decem aut paulo plura membra, nullas duas in tot millibus hominum indiscretas effigies existere, quod Ars nulla in paucis numero praestet affectando;</latin> to which among other things, he thus prefaces, <latin>Naturae vero rerum vis atque majestas in omnibus momentis fide caret.</latin>
Though this at first may seem to be a Matter of small Moment, yet, if duly considered, will appear to be of mighty Importance in Humane Affairs: For should there be an undiscernible Similitude between divers Men, what Confusion and Disturbance would necessarily follow ? What Uncertainty in all Sales and Conveyances, in all Bargains and Contracts ? What Frauds and Cheats, and suborning of Witnesses? What <**169> a Subversion of Trade and Commerce ? What Hazard in all
Judicial Proceedings? In all Assaults and Batteries, in all Murders and Assassinations, in Thefts and Robberies, what Security would there be to Malefactors ? Who could swear that such and such were the Persons that commited the Facts, though they saw them never so clearly? Many other Inconveniencies might be instanced in: So that we see this is no contemptible Argument of the Wildom and Goodness of God.
Neither is the Difference of Voices less considerable for the distinguishing of Sexes and particular Persons, and Individuals of all Animals, than that of Faces; as Dr. Cockburn makes out, Essay, etc. Part II. Pag.68. etc. Nay, in some cases more; for hereby Persons in the dark, and those that are blind, may know and distinguish one another, which is of great Importance to them; for otherwise they might be most grossly cheated and abused.
Farther we may add out of the same Author, p. 71 "And to no other Cause than the Wise Providence of God can be referred the no less strange Diversity of Handwritings. Common Experience shews, that though Hundreds and Thousands were taught by one Master, and one and the same Form of Writing, yet they should all write differently: Whether Men write Court or Roman Hand, or any other; there is some thing peculiar in every ones Writing, which distinguisheth it. Some, indeed, can counterfeit anothers Character and Subscription;
but the Instances are rare; nor is it done without Pains and Trouble: Nay, the most expert and skilful cannot write much so exactly like, as that it cannot be known, whether it be Genuine or Counterfeit. And if the Providence of God did not so order it, what Cheats and Forgeries too would daily be committed, which would not only justle private Men out of their Rights, but also unhinge States and Governments, and turn all into Confusion ? The Diversity of Handwritings is of mighty great Use to the Peacc of the World; it prevents Fraud, and secures Mens Property; it obligeth the Living and Present to Honesty and Faithfulness; it importeth the Mind of the Absent, and sheweth the Will of the Dead, which ought to be sacredly observed. And what is so very Useful, is not the Effect of any humane Concert. Men did not of themselves agree to it, they are only carried to it by the secret Providence of God, who understandeth and mindeth what is for the Good and Interest of Mankind in general, and of every particular Person.
Add farther to all this, That whereas there are Several Parts peculiar to Brutes, which are wanting in Man; as for Example, the seventh or suspensory Muscle of the Eye, the nictating Membrane, the strong Aponeuroses on the sides of the Neck, called by some Packwax, it is
very remarkable, that these Parts are of eminent and constant Use to them, as I shall particularly
shew hereafter, but to Man would have been altogether useless and superfluous.</1717><1691 page=169>
I have done with my general Observations. I proceed now more accurately and minutely to consider some particular Parts or Members of the Body; and First, the Hcad, because it was to contain a large Brain made of the most capacious Figure, as near as could be to a Spherical; upon this grows the Hair; which, though it be esteemed an Excrement, is of great Use (as I shewed before) to cherish and keep warm the Brain, and to quench the Force of any Stroke that might otherwise endanger the Skull. It serves also to disburden the Brain of a great deal of superfluous Moisture wherewith it abounds. <1691> and for a graceful ornament to the Face.</1691>
I find it remarkd by Marchetti, a famous Anatomist in Padua, that the Cause of Baldness in Men is the Dryness of the Brain, and its shrinking from the Cranium or Skull; he having observd, that in bald Persons, under the bald part, there was always a Vacuity or empty Space between the Skull and the Brain. And, Lastly, to name no more, it serves also for a graceful Ornament to the Face, which our present Age is sensible enough of, bestowing so much Money upon false Hair and Periwigs.</1717>
Secondly, Another Member which I shall more particularly treat of; is the Eye, a Part <**170> so artificially composed, and commodiously situate as nothing can be contrived better for
Use, Ornament or Security, nothing to Advantage added thereto, or altered therein. Of the Beauty of the Eye I shall say little, leaving that to Poets and Orators; that it is a very pleasant and lovely Object to behold, if we consider the Figure, Colours and Splendor of it, is the least that I can say. The Soul, as it is more immediately and strongly moved and affected by this Part than any other, so doth it manifest all its Passions and Perturbations by this.
As the Eyes are the Windows to let in the Species of all Exterior Objeets into the dark Cells of the Brain, for the Informlation of the soul; so are they flaming Torches to reveal to those Abroad, how the soul within is moved or affected. These Representations made by the Impressions of External Objects upon the Eye, are the most clear, lively and distinct of any others. Now to this Use and Purpose of informing us what is Abroad round about us in this aspectable World, we shall find this Structure and Mechanism of the Eye, and every Part thereof; so well fitted and adapted, as not the least Curiosity can be added:
For, first of all, the Humours and Tunicles are purely transparent, to let in the Light and <**171> Colours unfolded and unsophisticated by any inward Tincture. It is usually said by the Peripateticks, that the Crystalline Humour of the Eye (which they ineptly fancied to be the immediate Organ of Vision, wherein all the Species of Extemal Objects were terminated) is without all Colour, because its Office was to discern
all Colours, or at least, to receive the Species of several Colours, and convey them to the common Sense. Now if itself had been coloured, it would have transmitted all visible Objects tinctured with the same Colour; as we see whatever is beheld through a coloured Glass, appears of the Same Colour with the Glass; and to those that have the Jaundice, or the like Suffusion of Eyes, Objects appear of that same Colour wherewith their Eyes are infected. This they say, is in a great Measure true, although they are much mistaken about the Organ and Manner of Vision, and the Uses of the Humours and Membranes of the Eye. Two Reasons therefore may be assigned, why all the Membranes and Humours of the Eye are perfectly pellucid, and void of Colour. First, for the Clearness. Secondly, For the Distinctness of Vision.
I. The Clearness; for had the Tunicles and Humours of the Eye, all, or any of them been colorate, many of the Rays proceeding <**172> from the visible Object, would have been stopt and suffocated before they could come to the bottom of the Eye, where the formal Organ of Vision is situate; for it is a most certain Rule, how much any Body hath of Colour, so much hath it of Opacity, and by so much the more unfit it is to transmit the Species.
Secondly, For the Distinctness of Vision; for, as I said before, and the Peripateticks observe well, were the Humours of the Eye tinctured with any Colour, they would refund that
that Colour upon the Object, and so it would not be represented to the soul, as in itself it is. So we see, that through a coloured Glass things appear as well more dim and obscure, as tinctured with the Colour thereof.
Secondly, The Parts of the Eye are made convex, and especially the Crystalline Humour, which is of a lenticular Figure, convex on both sides; that, by the Refractions there made, there might be a Direction of many Rays coming from one Point in the Object viz. as many as the Pupil can receive, to one Point Answerable in the Bottom of the Eye, without which the Sense would be very obscure, and also confused.
There would be as much Difference in the Clearness and Distinction of Vision, were the outward Surface of the Tunica Cornea plain, and <**173> the Crystalline Humour removed; as between the Picture received on a white Paper in a dark Room through an open or empty Hole, and the same received through a Hole furnished with an exactly polished lenticular Crystal; which, how great it is, any one, that hath but seen this Experiment made, knows well enough. Indeed, this Experiment doth very much explain the Manner of Vision; the Hole answering to the Pupil of the Eye, the Crystalline Humour to the lenticular Glass, the dark Room to the Cavity, containing the vitreous Humour, and the white Paper to the Tunica Retina.
Thirdly, The Uveous Coat, or Iris of the Eye, hath a musculous Power, and can dilate and
contract that round Hole in it, called the Pupil, or Sight of the Eye. It contracts it for the excluding superfluous Light, and preserving the Eye from being injured by too vehement and lucid an Object, and again dilate it for the apprehending Objects more remote, or placed in a fainter Light; <latin>tam miro artificio (saith Scheiner) quam munifica naturae largitate.</latin>
If any one desires to make Experiment of these Particulars, he may, following Scheiner and Des Cartes their directions, take a Child, and setting a Candle before him, bid him look upon it, and he shall observe his Pupil contract itself <**174> very much, to exclude the Light, with the Brightness whereof it would otherwise be dazzled and offended; as we are, when after we have been some time in the dark, a bright Light is suddenly brought in and set before us, till the Pupils of our Eyes have gradually contracted themselves: Let the Candle be withdrawn, or removed aside, he shall observe the Childs Pupil by Degrees to dilate itself. Or let him take a Bead, or the like Object, and holding it near the Eye, command the Child to look at it, the Pupil will contract much when the Object is near; but let it be withdrawn to a greater Distance in the same light, and he shall observe the Pupil to be much enlarged.
Fourthly, The Uveous Coat, and also the Inside of the Choroides, are blackend like the Walls of a Tennis-Court, that the Rays may be there suffocated and suppressed, and not reflected
backwards to confound the Sight: And it any be, by the Retiform Coat, reflected, they are soon choaked in the black Inside of the Uvea. Whereas were they reflected to and fro, there could be no distinct Vision: As we see the Light admitted into the dark Room we even now spake of obliterates the Species which before were seen upon the white Cloath or Paper.
<**175> Fifthly, because the Rays from a nearer, and from a more remote Object, do not meet just in the same Distance behind the Crystalline Humour (as may easily be observed in Lenticular Glass, where the Point or Concourse of the Rays from a nearer Objeet is at a greater Distance behind the Glass, and from a farther at a lesser) therefore the Ciliary Processes, or rather the Ligaments observed in the Inside of the Sclerotick Tunicles of the Eye, by a late ingenious Anatomist, do serve instead of a Muscle, by their Contraction to alter the Figure of the Eye, and make it broader; and consequently draw the Retina nearer to the Crystalline Humour; and by their Relaxation suffer it to return to its natural Distance, according to the Exigency of the Object, in respect of Distance or Propinquity: And besides, possibly the Ciliary Proceisses may, by their Constriction or Relaxation, render the Crystalline itself more gibbose or plain; and with the Help of the Muscles, a little alter the Figure of the whole Eye for the same Reason.
To what I have said might be added that the retiform
Tunicle is whitish, for the better and more true Reception of the Species of Things. That there being a Distance necessarily required for the Collection of the Rays receivd by the Pupil, viz. those that proceed from one Point <**176> of the Object to one Point again in the Bottom of the Eye, the Retina must needs be set at a Distance from the Crystalline Humour: And therefore, Nature hath provided a large Room, and filled it with the pellucid vitreous Humour most fit for that Purpose.
I must not omit a notable Observation concerning the Place of the Insertion of the Optick Nerve into the Bulb of the Eye, and the Reason of it; which I owe to that learned Mathematician Petcr Herigon; <latin>Nervus Opticus (saith lie in his Optica) ad latus ponitur, ne pars imaginis in eius foramen incidens pictura careat</latin>. The Optick Nerve is not situate directly behind the Eye, but on one side, lest that Part of the Image that falls upon the Hole of the Optick Nerve, should want its Picture. This I do not conceive to be the true Reason ofthis Situation ; for even now as it is situate, that Part of the Object, whose Rays fall upon the Center or Hole of the Optick Nerve, wants its Picture, as we find by Experiences that Part not being seen by us, though we heed it not: But the Reason is, because if the Optick Axis should fall upon this Center (as it would do, were the Nerve seated just behind the Eye) this great Inconvenience would follow, that the middle Point of every Object <**177> we viewed would be invisible,
or there would a dark Spot appear in the midst of it. Thus we see the admirable Wisdom of Nature in thus placing the Optick Nerve in respect of the Eye; which he that did not consider or understand, would be apt to think more inconveniently situate for Vision than if it had been right behind.
Another Thing also concerning Vision is most remarkable, that though there be a Decussation of the Rays in the Pupil of the Eye, and so the Image of the Object in the Retina, or Bottom of the Eye, be inverted, yet doth not the Object appear inverted, but in its right or natural Posture. The Reason whereof is, because the Visual Rays coming in streight Lines, by those Points of the Sensory or Retina which they touch, affect the common Sense or Soul, according to their Direction. That is, signifie to it, that those several Parts of the Object from whence they proceed, lie in streight Lines, (Point for Point) drawn through the Pupil to the several Points of the Sensory where they terminate, and which they press upon. whereupon the Soul must needs conceive the Object, not an inverted, but a right Posture; and that the Nerves are naturally made, not only to inform the soul of External Objects which press upon them, but also of <**178> the Situation of such Objects, is clear, because if the Eyes be distorted, the Object, will we, nill we, will appear double: so if the fore and middle Fingers be crossd, and a round Body put between them, and moved, it will seem to
be two; the Reason is, because in that Posture of the Fingers the Body touches the Outsides of them, which in their natural Sight are distant one from another, and their Nerves made to signifie to the soul Bodies separate and distant in like manner, two Fingers lying between them. And tho our Reason, by the Help of our Sight, corrects this Error, yet cannot we but fancy it to be so.
Neither is the aqueous Humour, as some may supinely imagine, altogether useless or unprofitable as to Vision, because by its Help the Uvea Tunica is sustained, which else would fall flat upon the Crystalline Humour; and fluid it must be to give way to the Contraction and Dilatation of the Uveous: And because the outermost Coat of the Eye might chance to be wouncled or pricked, and this Humour being fluid let out, therefore Nature hath made Provision speedily to repair it again in such a Case, <1717> by the help of certain Water-pipes, or Lymphae-ducts inserted into the Bulb of the Eye, proceeding from Glandules designd by Nature to separate this Water from the Blood for that use. Antonius Nuck affirms, that if the Eye of an Animal be prickd, and the aqueous Humour squeezd out, in ten Hours Space the said Humour and Sight shall be restored to the Eye, if at least the Creature be kept in a dark Place. And that he did publickly demonstrate the same in the Anatomical Theatre at Leyden, in a Dog, out of whose Eye being wounded the aqueous Humour did
so copiously flow, that the Membranes appeared flacid, and yet in six Hours Space the Bulb of the Eye was again replete with its Humour, and that without the Application of any Medicines. Antonius Nuck de Ductu novo salivali, etc.</1717>
Moreover, it is remarkable, that the Cornea Tunica [ horny or pellucid Coat of the Eye ] doth not lie in the same superficies <**179> with the white of the Eye, but riseth up, as it were a Hillock above its Convexity, and is of an Hyperbolical or Parabolical Figure: so that though the Eye seems to be perfectly round, in Reality it is not so, but the Iris thereof is protuberant above the White; and the Reason is, because that if the Cornea tunica, or Crysalline Humour, had been concentrical to the Sclerodes, the Eye could not have admitted a whole Hemisphere at one View, <latin>et sic Animalis incolumitati in multis rebus minus cautum esset</latin>, as Scheiner well observes. In many Things there had not been sufficient Caution or Care taken for the Animals Safety.
And now (that I may use the Words of a late Author of our own <margin> Dr More, Antidote against Atheism</margin> the Eye is already so perfect, that I believe the Reason of a Man would easilly have rested here, and admired at his own Contrivance. For he being able to move his whole Body upward and downward, and on every Side, might have unawares thought himself sufficiently well provided for; but Nature hath added Muscles also to the Eyes, that no
Perfection might be wanting: For we have often occasion to move our Eyes, our Head being unmoved, as in reading and viewing more particularly an Object set before us, by transferring the Axes of our Eyes all <**180> over it: And that this may be done with the more ease and Accuracy, she hath furnished this Organ with no less than six Muscles, to move it upward, downward, to the Right and Left, obliquely and round about.
I shall now consider what Provision is made for the Defence and Security of this most excellent and useful Part.
First, the Eyes are sunk in a convenient Valley, latent utiliter, and are encompassed round with eminent Parts, as with a Rampart <latin> et excelsis undique partibus sepiuntur, </latin> <margin>De Natur. Rerum l.2 Cicero </margin> so are defended from the strokes of any flat or broad Bodies. Above stand the Eye-Brows, to keep of any thing from running down upon them, as Drops of Sweat from the Forehead, or Dust, or the like. <latin>Superiora superciliis obducta sudorem à capite et fronte defluentum repellunt. Cicero. Then follow the Eye-lids, which fence them from any sudden and lesser Stripes. These also round the Edges are fortified with stiff Bristles, as it were Pallisadoes, against the Incursions of importunate Animals, serving partly as a Fan to Strike away Flies or Gnats, or any other troublesome Insect; and partly to keep off
Superfluous Light. <latin>Munit eq; sunt palpebrae tanquam vallo siquid incideret repelleretur. <**181> Idem ibid.
And because it was necessary that Man and other Animals should sleep, which could not be so well done if the Light came in by the Windows of the Eyes, therefore hath Nature provided these Curtains to be then drawn to keep it out.
And because the outward Coat of the Eye ought to be pellucid to transmit the Light, which if the Eyes should always stand open, would be apt to grow dry and shrink, and lose their Diaphaneity, therefore are the Eyelids so contrived, as often to wink, that so they may as it were glaze and varnish them over with the Moisture they contain, there being Glandules on purpose to separate a Humour for that Use, and withal wipe off whatever Dust or Filth may stick to them: And this, lest they should hinder the Sight, they do with the greatest Celerity. Cicero hath taken Notice, that they are made very soft, lest they should hurt the Sight. <latin> Mollisimae tactu ne loederent aciem, aptissime factoe et ad claudendas pupillas ne quid incideret, et ad aperiendas, idq; providit ut identidem fieri posset maxima cum celeritate.</latin>
Secondly, If we consider the Bulb or Ball of the Eye, the exterior Membrane or Coat thereof is made thick, tough and strong, that it is a very hard Matter to make a Rupture in it, and besides so slippery, that it eludes the Force of
any Stroke, to which also its globular Figure gives it a very great Advantage. <**182>
Lastly, because for the Guidance and Direction of the Body in Walking, and any Exercise, it is necessary the Eye should be uncovered, and exposed to the Air at all times and in all Weathers, therefore the most wise Author of Nature hath provided for it a hot Bed of Fat, which fills up the Interstices of the Muscles; and besides made it more patient and less sensible of Cold, than our other Parts and tho I cannot say with Cicero, absolutely free from Danger or Harm by that Enemy, yet least obnoxious to the Injuries thereof of any Part, and not at all, unless it be immoderate and extreme.
To all this I might add the Convenience of the Situation of the Eye in respect of its Proximity to the Brain, the Seat of_Apprehension and Common Sense: Whereas had it been further removed, the Optick Nerves had been liable to many more Dangers and Inconveniencies than now they are.
Seeing then the Eye is composed of so great Variety of Parts, all conspiring to the Use of Vision, whereof some are absolutely necessary others very useful and convenient, none idle or superfluous; and which is remarkable, many of them of a different Figure and Consistency from any others in the Body besides, as being transparent, which it was absolutely nccessary they should be, to transmit <**183> the Rays of
Light: Who can but believe that this Organ was designed and made Purposely for the Use for which it serves ?
Neither is it to be esteemed any Defect or Imperfection in the Eyes of Man, that they want the seventh Muscle, or the nictating Membrane, which the Eyes of many other Animals are furnished withal; for though they be very useful, and in a manner necessary to them, considering their manner of living, yet they are not so to Man. To such Beasts as feed upon Grass and other Herbs, and therefore are forced to hold their Eyes long in a hanging Posture, and to look downwards for the choosing and gathering of their Food, the Seventh or Suspensory Muscle is very useful, to enable them to do so without much Pain or Weariness; yet to Man, who doth not, nor hath any Occasion, indeed cannot hold his Head, or look long downwards, it would be useless and superfluous.
As for the nictating Membrane, or Periophthalmium, which all Birds, and I think most Quadrupeds, are furnished with, I have been long in doubt what the Use of it might be; and have sometimes thought it was for the more abundant Defence and Security of the Eye; but then I was puzzled to give any tolerable Account, why Nature should be more solicitous <**184> for the Preservation of the Eyes of Brutes than Men, and in this respect also to be a Step-Mother to the most noble Creature.
But the honourable Author <margin> Boyle, Of Final Causes, ch. 2, p. 53,54</margin> formerly mentiond, gives a probable Account why Frogs anal Birds are furnished with such a Membrane. Frogs, because being Amphibious Animals, designed to pass their Lives in watery places, which for the most part abound with Sedges, and other Plants endowed with sharp Edges or Points; and the progressive Motion of this Animal being to be made not by Walking, but by Leaping, if his Eyes were not provided of such a Sheath, he must either Shut them, and so leap blindly, and by consequence dangerously, or by leaving them open run a Venture to have the Cornea cut, prickd, or otherwise offended by the Edges or Points of the Plants, or what may fall from them upon the Animals Eye: Whereas this Membrane (being something transparent as well as Strong) is like a kind of Spectacle that covers the Eye without taking away the Sight. Birds are likewise furnished with it because being destinated to fly among the Branches of Trees and Bushes, their Prickles, Twigs, Leaves, or other Parts, would be apt otherwise to wound or offend their Eyes.
But yet still we are to seek why it is given <**185> to other Quadrupeds, whose Eyes are in no such Danger.
Thirdly, The Ear, another Organ of Sense, how admirable it is contrived for the receiving and conveying of sounds ? First, There is the outward Ear or Auricula, made hollow and
contracted by Degrees to draw the sound inward, to take in as much as may be of it, as we use a funnel to pour Liquor into any Vessel. And therefore if the Auricula be cut clear off, the Hearing is much impaired, and almost quite marred, as hath been by Experience found.
From the Auricula is extended a small, long, round Hole, inward into the Head, to intend the Motion, and so augment the force of the Sound, as we see in a shooting Trunk, the longer it is to a certain Limit, the swifter and more forcibly the Air passes in it, and drives the Pellet. At the End of this Hole is a Membrane, fastned to a round bony Limb, and stretched like the Head of a Drum, and therefore by Anatomists called also Tympanum, to receive the Impulse of the sound, and to Vibrate or quaver according to its reciprocal Motions or Vibrations; the small Ear-bones being at the End fastned to the Tympanum, and furnished with a Muscle, serve for the Tension of that Membrane, or the Relaxaticn of it according to the Exigency <**186> of the Animal, it being Stretchd to the utmost when it would hearken diligently to a lower or more distant sound.
Behind the Drum are several Vaults and Anfractuose Cavities in the Ear-Bone, filled only with what Naturalists call the Implanted Air; so to intend the least sound imaginable, that the Sense might be affected wth it, as we see in subterraneous Caves and Vaults, how the sound is redoubled, and what a great Report it makes, however moderate it be: And because
it was for the Behoof of the Animal, that upon any sudden Accident it might be awakened out of its fleep, therefore were there no Shuts or Stopples made for the Ears, that so any loud or sharp Noise might awaken it, as also a soft and gentle Voice or Murmur provoke it to sleep.
Now the Ears, for the Benefit and Conveniencies of the Animal, being always to stand open, because there was some Danger that Insects might creep in thereat and eating their way through the Tympanum harbour in the Cavities behind it; therefore hath Nature loricated or plaistred over the sides of the forementioned Hole with Ear-wax, to stop and entangle any Insect that should attempt to creep in there. But I must confess myself not sufficiently to understand the Nature of sounds to give a full and satisfactory <**187> Account of the Structure and Uses of all the Parts of the Ear. <1717>They ltX o have a mind to le r~-h into the Ctljious Anatoll ;nd Use of this Part, may consult Monsieur da Verx y.</1717>
Fourthly, The next Part I shall take notice of shall be the Teeth; concerning which I find Seven Observations in the honourable Mr. Boyles Treatise of Final Causes, which I shall briefly recapitulate, and add one or two more.
1. That the Teeth alone, among the Bones continue to grow in Length during a Mans whole Life, as appears by the unsightly Length of one Tooth, when its Opposite happens to fall,
or be pulled out; which was most providently designd to repair the Waste that is daily made of them by the frequent Attrition in Mastication. Here, by the by, I might advise Men to be careful how they attempt to cure this Blemish, by filing or cutting off the Head of such an overgrown Tooth, lest that befall them which happened to a certain Nun in Padua, who, upon cutting of a Tooth in that manner, was presently convulsed, and fell into an Epilepsy, as Bartholine in his Anatomy reports.
II. That that Part of the Teeth which is extant above the Gums, is naked, and not invested with that sensible membrane called Periosteum, wherewith the other Bones are covered. <**188>
III. That the Teeth are of a closer and harder substmce than the rest of the Bones, for the more easy Breaking and Comminution of the more solid Aliments, and that they might be more durable, and not so soon worn down by grinding the Food.
IV. That for the nourishng and cherishing these so necessary Bones, the All wise Author of Things has admirably contrived an unseen Cavity in each side of the Jaw-bone, in which greater Channel are lodged an Artery, a Vein, and a Nerve, which through lesser Cavities, as it were through Gutters, send their twigs to each particular Tooth.
V. Because Infants were for a considerable time to feed upon Milk, which needs no Chewing, and lest Teeth thould hurt the tender Nipples of the Nurse, Nature hath deferred the production of them for many Months in a humane foetus, whereas those of divers other Animals, which are reduced to seek betimes Food that needs Mastication, are born with them.
VI. The different Figure and Shape of the Teeth is remarkable. That the Fore-Teeth should be formed broad, and with a thin and sharp Edge, like Chizzels, to cut off and take away a morsel from any solid Food, called therefore Incisores. The next one on each side, stronger, and deeper rooted, and <**189> more pointed, called therefore Canini, in English Eye-Teeth, to tear the more tough rnd resisting sort of Aliments. The rest called Jaw-Teeth or Grinders, in Latin, Molares, are made flat and broad atop, and withal somewhat uneven and rugged that by their Knobs and little Cavities they may the better retain, grind, and commix the Aliments.
VII. because the Operations to be performed by the Teeth, oftentimes require a considerable Firmness and Strength, partly in the Teeth themselves, partly in the Instlruments which move the lower Jaw, which alone is moveable, Nature hath provided this with Strong Muscles,
to make it bear forcibly against the upper Jaw.
And thus not only placed each Tooth in a distinct Cavity of the Jaw-bone, as it were in a close, strong, and deep socket, but has furnished the several sorts of Teeth with Hold-fasts suitable to the Stress, that by Reason of their different Offices they are to be put to. And therefore, whereas the Cutters and Eyeteeth have usually but one Root, which in these last named, is wont to be very long; the Grinders, that are employed to crack Nuts, Stones of Fruit, Bones, or other hard Bodies, are furnished with three Roots, and in the upper jaw often with four, because these are pendulous, and the Substance of the Jaw somewhat softer. <**190>
VIII. The Situation of the Teeth is most convenient, viz. the Molares or Grinders behind, nearest the Center of Motion, because there is a greater Strength or Force required to chew the Meat, than to bite a Piece, and the Cuttcrs before, that they may be ready to cut off a Morsel from any solid Food, to be transmitted to the Grinders.
IX. It is remarkable, that the Jaw in Men, and such Animals as are furnished with Grinders, hath an oblique or transverse Motion, which is necessary for Chewing and Comminution of the Meat; which it is observed not to have in those Animals that want the Molares.
Now if (as Galen saith) he that shall marshal a Company but of 32 Men in due Order is commended for a skilful and industrious Person, shall we not admire Nature whicn hath so skilfully ranked and disposed this Quire of our Teeth ?
Fifthly, The Tongue is no less admirable for the Contexture and manifold Uses of it. First, It is the Organ of Tasting; for being of a spungey Substance, the small Particles of our Meat and Drink being mingled with the Saliva, easily insinuate themselves into the Pores of it, and so do either gratefully affect it, or harshly grate upon it, accordingly as they are figured and moved; and <**191> hereby we discern what is convenient or inconvenient for our Nourishment. It helps us likewise in the Chewing and Swallowing of our meat: And, Lastly, It is the main Instrument of Speaking, a Quality so peculiar to Man, that no Beast coud ever attain to it. And although Birds have been taught to form some Words, yet they have been but a few, and those learnt with great Difficulty; but what is the Chief, the Birds understand not the Meaning of them, nor use them as signs of Things, or their own Conceptions of them; though they may use them as Expresions of their Passions: As Parrots having been used to be fed at the Prolation of certain Words, rnay afterwards, when they are hungry, pronounce the same. For this Des Cartes makes his main Argument, to
prove, that Brutes have no Cogitation, because the highest of them could never be brought to signify their Thoughts or Conceptions by any artificial Signs, either Words, or Gestures, (which, if they had any, they would, in all likelihood, be forward enough to do) whereas all Men, both Fools and Mutes, make use of Words or other Signs to express their Thoughlts, about any Subjects that present themselves; which Signs also have no reference to any of their Passions. Whereas the Signs that Brute <**192> Animals may be taught to use, are no other than such as are the Motions of some of their Passions, Fear, Hope, Joy, etc. Hence some of the Jewish Rabbins did not so absurdly define a Man Animal loquens, a speaking Creature.
Having had occasion just now to mention the Saliva, or Spittle, I am put in mind of the eminent Use of this Humour, which is commonly taken for an Excrement. because a great Part of our Food is dry; therefore Nature hath provided several Glandules to separate this Juice from the Blood, and no less than four <1717>Pair of</1717> Channels to convey it into the Mouth, which are of late Invention, and called by Anatomists Ductus Salivales, through which the Saliva distilling continually, serves well to macerate and temper our Meat, and make it fit to be chewed and swallowed. If a copious Moisture did not, by these Conduit-Pipes, incessantly flow down into the Mouths of Horses and Kine, how were it possible they should for a long
time to, ether grind and swallow such dry Meat as Hay and Straw ? Moreover, it is useful not only in the Mouth, but in the Stomach too, to promote Concoction <1717>, as we have already noted</1717>.
Sixthly, To the Mouth succeeds the Windpipe, no less wonderful in its Conformation. For because continual Respiration is necessary for the Support of our Lives, it is made <**203 193-202 not pages> with annulary Cartilages to keep it constantly open, and that the Sides of it may not flag and fall together. And lest when we swallow, our Meat or Drink should fall in there, and obstruct it, it hath a strong Shut or Valve, called Epiglottis, to cover it close, and stop it when we swallow: For the more convenient bending of our Necks, it is not made of one entire continual Cartilage, but of many annular ones joind together by strong Membranes, which Membranes are mtuscular, compounded of streight and circular Fibres, for the more effiectual Contraction of the Wind-Pipe in any strong or violent Expiration or Coughing. And lest the Asperity or Hardness of these Cartilages should hurt the Oesophagus, or Gullet, which is tender, and of a skinny Substance, or hinder the Swallowing of our Meat, therefore these annulary Gristles are not made round, or entire Circles; but where the Gullet touches the Wind-Pipe, there to fill up the Circle, is only a soft Membrane, which may easily give Way to the Dilation of the Gullet. And to demonstrate that this was designedly done for this
End and Use, so soon as the Wind-Pipe enters the Lungs, its Cartilages are no longer deficient, but perfect Circles or Rings, because there was no necessity they should be so, but ie was more convenient they should be entire. <**204>
Lastly, For the various Modulation of the Voice the Upper end of the Wind-Pipe is endued with several Cartilages and Muscles, to contract or dilate it, as we would have our Voice Flat or Sharp; and, moreover, the whole is continually moistned with a glutinous Humour issuing out of the small Glandules that are upon its inner Coat, to fence it against the Sharp Air received in, or Breath forced out; yet is it of quick and tender Sense, that it may be easily provoked to cast out by Coughing, whatever may fall into it from without, or be discharged into it from within.
<1717>It is also very remarkable which Caspar Bartholine hath observed in the Gullet, that where it perforateth the Midriff; the carneous Fibres of that Muscular Part are inflected and arcuate, as it were a Spincter embracing and closing it fast, by a great Providence of Nature, lest, in the perpetual Motion of the said Midriff, the upper Orifice of the Stomach should gape, and cast out the Victuals as fast as it received it.</1717>
Seventhly, The Heart, which hath been always esteemed, and really is, one of the principal Parts of the Body, the <latin>primum vivens, et ultimum moriens</latin> <1717>the First that quickens and the Last that dies,</1717> by its incessant Motion
distributing the Blood, the Vehicle of Life, and with it the Vital Heat and Spirits, throughout the whole Body, whereby it doth continually irrigate, nourish, and keep hot and supple all the Members. Is it not admirable, that from this Fountain of Life and Heat, there should be Channels and Conduit-Pipes, to every, even the least and most remote, Part of the Body ; just as if from one Water-house, there should be Pipes conveying the Water to every House in a Town, and to every Room in each House; <**205> or from one Fountain in a Garden, there should be little Channels or Dikies cut to every Bed, and every Plant growing therein, as we have seen more than once done beyond the Seas.
I confess, the Heart seems not to be designed to so noble an Use as is generally believed, that is, to be the Fountain or Conservatory of the vital Flame, and to inspire the Blood therewith; (for the Lungs serve rather for the Accension, or maintaining that Flame, the Blood receiving there from the Air those Particles which are one Part of the Pabulum or Fewel thereof, and so impregnated, running back to the Heart) but to serve as a Machine to receive the Blood from the Veins, and to force it out by the Arteries through the whole Body, as a Syringe doth any Liquor, though not by the same Artifice: And yet this is no ignoble Use, the Continuance of the Circulation of the Blood being indispensably necessary for the quickening and enlivening of all the Members of the Body, and supplying of Matter to the Brain, for the Preparation of the Animal Spirits,
the Instruments of all Sense and Motion.
Now for this Use of receiving and pumping out of the Blood, the Heart is admirably contrived. For, First, being a Muscular Part, the Sides of it are composd of two Orders of <**206> Fibres, running circularly or spirally from Base to Tip, contrarily one to the other, and so being drawn or contracted contrary-ways, do violently constringe and straiten the Ventricles, and strongly force out the Blood, as we have formerly intimated.
Then the Vessels we call Arteries, which carry from the Heart to the several Parts, have Valves which open outwards like Trap-doors, and give the Blood a free Passage out of the Heart, but will not suffer it to return back again thither; and the Veins, which bring it back from the several Members to the Heart, have Valves or Trap-doors which open inwards, so as to give way unto the Blood to run into the Heart, but prevent it from running back again that way. Besides, the Arteries consist of a quadruple Coat, the Third of which is made up of Annular or Orbicular Carneous Fibres to a good Thickness, and is of a Muscular Nature, after every Pulse of the Heart, serving to contract the Vessel successively with incredible Celerity; so by a kind of peristaltick Motion, impelling che Blood onwards to the capillary Extremities, and through the Muscles, with great Force and Swiftness.
So the Pulse of the Arteries is not only caused by the Pulsation of the Heart, driving the Blood through them, in manner of a Wave or Flush,
as Des Cartes <**207> and others, would have it; but by the Coats of the Arteries themselves, which the Experiments of a certain Lovain Physician <margin>Cartes Epist. Vol.1 Ep.77 & Seq. </margin> (the first whereof is Galens) do, in my Opinion, make good against him.
First, saith he, "if you slit the Artery, and thrust into it a Pipe, so big as to fill the Cavity of it, and cast a strait Ligature upon that Part of the Artery containing the Pipe, and so bind it fast to the Pipe; notwithstanding, the Blood hath free Passage through the Pipe, yet will not the Artery beat below the Ligature; but do but take of the Ligature, it will commence again to beat immediately. But because one might be ready to reply to this Experiment, that the reason why when bound it did not beat, was, becauce the Current of the Blood being straitned by the Pipe, when beneath the Pipe it came to have more Liberty, was not sufficient to stretch the Coat of the Artery, and so cause a Pulse; but when the Ligature was taken of it might flow between the enclosed Tube, and the Coat of the Artery: Therefore he adds another, which clearly evinces, that this could not be the Reason, but that it is something flowing down the Coats of the Artery that causes the Pulse: That is, if you straiten the Artery never so much, provided the Sides of it do not quite meet, and stop all Passage <**208> of the Blood, the Vessel will, notwithstanding, continue still to beat below or beyond the Coarctation. so we see some Physicians, both Ancients, (as Galen)
and Modern, were of Opinion, that the Pulse of the Arteries was owing to their Coats; though the first, that I know of, who observed the third Coat of an Artery to be a muscular Body, composed of annular Fibres, was Dr. Willis.
This Mention of the perstaltick Motion, puts me in mind of an ocular Demonstration of it, in the Gullet of Kine when they chew the Cud, which I have often beheld with Pleasure. For, after they have swallowed one Morsel, if you look stedfastly upon their Throat, you will soon see another ascend, and run pretty swiftly all along the Throat up to the Mouth, which it could not do, unless it were impelled by the successive Contraction, or peristaltick Motion of the Gullet, continually following it. And it is remarkable, that these ruminant Creatures have a Power by the imperium of their Wills, of directing this peristaltick Motion upwards or downwards.
I shall add no more concerning the Heart, but that it, and the Brain, do mutuas opera tradere, enable one another to work: For, First, the Brain cannot itself live, unless it receive continual Supplies of Blood from the Heart, but less can it <**209> perform its Functions of preparing and distributing the Animal Spirits; nor the Heart pulse, unless it receives Spirits, or something else that descends from the Brain by the Nerves. For do but cut asunder the Nerves that go from the Brain to the Heart, the Motion thereof, in most perfect and hot Creatures,
ceaseth immediately. which Part began this Round is the Question.
<1717>I find, in the Philosophical Transactions Numb. 280. some notable Observations of the famous Anatomist Mr. William Cowper concerning the Artifice of Nature, in regulating the Motion of the Blood in the Veins and Arteries to assist and promote it in the one, and moderate it in the other, which I shall give you in his own Words:
"As the Arteries, (saith he) are known to export the Blood, so the Veins to carry it back again to the Heart ; but having already described their Extremities, we come now to the large Trunks of the Veins, and here, as in the Arteries, we find the common Practice of Nature, in disposimg the Branches of Veins to discharge the refluent Blood into the next adjacent Trunk, and so on to the Heart. As the Arteries afford abundance of Instances of Checks given to the Velocity of the Current of Blood through several Parts, so the Veins supply us with as many Artifices, to assist its regular Return to the Heart, as well as favour those Contrivances in the Arteries.
The carotid, vertebral, and splenick Arteries, are not only variously contorted, but also here and there dilated to moderate the Motion of the Blood; so the Veins that correspond to those Arteries are also variously dilated. The Beginnings of the internal Jugulars have a bulbous Cavity, which are diverticula to the refluent Blood, in the Sinuss of the dura Mater,
lest it should descend too fast into the Jugulars. The like has been taken Notice of by Dr. Lower, in the Vertebral Sinuss. The Splenick Vein has divers Cells opening into it, near its Extremities in Humane hodies; but in Quadrupeds, the Cells open into the Trunks of the Splenick Veins.
The Spermatick Veins do more than equal the Length of the Arteries of the Testes in Men; their various Divisions, and several Inosculations, and their Valves are admirably contrived to suspend the Weight of the Blood, in order to discharge it into the larger Trunks of the Veins; and were it not that the refluent Blood from the Testes, is a Pondus to the influent Blood from the Arteries, and still lessens its Current in the Testes, these Spermatick Veins, like those of other Parts, might have discharged the Blood into the next adjacent Trunk.
Who can avoid Surprize at the Art of Nature, in contriving the Veins, that bring Part of the refluent Blood from the lower Parts of the Body, when they consider the Necessity of placing the Humane Heart, as well as that of most quadrupeds, so far from the Center of the Body towards its upper Part. It is for that End neceery, that the large Trunks of the Veins and Arteries should not associate each other. For if all the Blood sent to the lower Parts, by the descending Trunk of the Aorta, should return to the Heart again by one single Trunk, ( as it is sent out from thence ) the
Weight of so much Blood in the ascending Trunks of the vena Cava, would oppose all the Force the Heart could give it from the Arteries, and hinder its Ascent. For this Reason the vena Azygos, or fine Pari, is contrived to convey the B!ood sent to the Muscles of the Back and Thorax, into the descending Trunk of the vena Cava above the Heart. Hence its evident, that more Blood comes into the Heart by the descending or upper Trunk of the vena Cava, than pases out by the ascending Trun of the Aorta. Nor does the Quantity of Blood conveyd to the Heart by the superior Trunk of the Cava, seem, without some other Design in Nature besides transporting it thither, to free the inserior Trunk from its Weight. But perhaps it was necesary so much Blood should be ready there to join with the Chyle, for its better Mixture, before it reaches the right Auricle of the Heart. So far Mr. Cowper. </1717>
Eighthly, The next Part I shall treat of shall be the Hand, this <greek>organon organOn</greek> or superlative Instrument, which serves us for such a multitude of Uses, as it is not easy to enumerate; whereto, if we consider the Make and Structure of it, we shall find it wonderfully adapted. First, It is divided into four Fingers bending forward, and one opposite to them bending backwards, and of greater Strength than any of them singly, which we call the Thumb, to join with them severally, or united; whereby it is fitted to lay hold of Objects
of any Size or Quantity.
The least Things, as any small single Seed, are taken up by the thumb and Fore-finger; those a little greater by the Thumb and two Fingers, which also we chiefly employ to manage the Needle in sowing, and the Pen in Writing: When we would take up a greater Quantity of any Thing, we make use of the Thumb, and <**210> all the Fingers. Sometimes we use one Finger only, as in pointing at any Thing, picking Things out of Holes, or long and narrow Vessels; sometimes all severally at one time, as in stopping the Strings when we play upon any musical Instruments.
Secondly, The Fingers are strengthened with several Bones, jointed together for Motion, and furnished with several Muscles and Tendons, like so many Pullies to bend them circularly forwards; which is most convenient for the firm holding, and griping of any Object: Which of how great, constant, and necessary Use it is in pulling or drawing, but especially in taking up, and retaining any sort of Tool or Instrument to work withal, in Husbandry, and all mechanick Arts, is so obvious to every Mans Observation, that I need not spend Time to instance in Particulars: Moreover, the several Fingers are furnished with several Muscles, to extend and open the Hand and to move to the Right and Left: And so this Division and Motion of the Fingers doth not hinder, but that the whole Hand may be employed, as if it were all of a Piece; as we see it is, either expanded, as in striking out,
smoothing and folding up of Cloaths, and some mechanick Uses; or contracted, as in Fighting, Kneading of Dough, and the like.
It is also notable, <**211> and indeed wonderful, that the Tendons, bending the middle joint of the Fingers, should be perforated to give Passage to the Tendons of the Muscles which draw the uppermost joints, and all bound down close to the Bone with strong Fillets, lest they should start up, and hinder the Hand in its Work, standing like so many Bow-strings.
Thirdly, The Fingers ends are strengthened with Nails, as we fortify the Ends of our Staves or Forks with Iron-Hoops or Ferules; which Nails serve not only for Defence, but for Ornament and many Uses. The Skin upon our Fingers ends is thin, and of most exquisite Sense, to help us judge of any Thing we handle. If now I thould go about to reckon up the several Uses of this Instrument, Time should sooner fail me than Matter.
By the Help of this we do all our Works, we build ourselves Houses to dwell in; we make ourselves Garments to wear; we plow and sow our Grounds with Corn, dress and cultivate our Vineyards, Gardens, and Orchards, gather and lay up our Grain, and Fruits, we prepare and make ready our Victuals: Spinning, Weaving, Painting, Carving, Engraving, and that Divinely invented Art of Writing, whereby we transmit our own Thoughts to Posterity, and converse with, and participate the Observations <*212> and Inventions of them that are long ago Dead, all
performed by this. This is the only Instrument for all Arts whatsoever ; no Improvement to be made of any Experimental Knowledge without it. Hence (as Aristotle saith well) they do amiss that complain, that Man is worse dealt with by Nature than other Crestures; whereas, they have some Hair, some Shells, some Wool, some Feathers, some Scales, to defend them selves from the Injuries of the Weather: Man alone is born Naked, and without all Covering; whereas, they have natural Weapons to defend themselves, and offend their Enemies, some Horns, some Hoofs, some Teeth, some Talons, some Claws, some Spurs and Beaks; Man hath none of all these, but is weak, and feeble, and unarmed sent into the World.
Why, a Hand, with Reason to use it, supplies the Uses of all these, thats both a Horn, and a Hoof; and a Talon, and a Tusk, etc. because it enables us to use weapons of these, and other Fashions, as Swords, and Spears, and Guns. Besides, this Advantage a Man hath of them, that whereas they cannot at Pleasure change their Coverings, or lay asde their Weapons, or make use of others as Occasion serves, but must abide Winter and Summer, Night and Day, with the same Cloathing on their Backs, <**213> and sleep with their Weapons upon them; a Man can alter his Cloathing according to the Exigency of the Weather, go warm in Winter, and cool in Summer, cover up himself hot in the Night, and lay aside his Cloaths in the Day, and put on or off more or fewer, according
as his Work and Exercise is: And can, as Occasion requires, make use of divers sorts of Weapons, and Choice of such at all Turns, as are most proper and convenient; whereby we are enabled to subdue and rule over all other Creatures; and use for our own Behoof those Qualities wherein they excel, as the Strength of the Ox, the Valour and Swiftness of the Horse, the Sagacity and Vigilancy of the Dog, and so make them as it were our own.
Had we wanted this Member in our Bodies, we must have lived the Life of Brutes without House or Shelter, but what the Woods and Rocks would have afforded; without Cloaths or Covering; without Corn, or Wine, or Oil, or any other Drink but Water; without the Warmth and Comfort, or other Uses of Fire, and so without any artificial bakd, boild, or roast Meats; but must have scrambled with the wild Beasts for Crabs, and Nuts, and Acorns, and such other Things as the Earth puts forth of her own Accord. We had laid open and exposed <**214> to Injuries, and had been unable to resist or defend ourselves against almost the weakest Creature.
The remaining Parts I shall but briefly run over;
That the Back-bone should be divided into so many Vertebres for commodious bending, and not be one entire rigid Bone, which being of that Length would have been often in Danger of snapping in sunder:
<1717>That it should be made tapering in the Form of a Pillar, the lower
Vertebres being the broadest and largest, and the Superior in order, lesser and lesser; for the greater Firmness and Stability of the Trunk of the Body: </1717>
That the several Vertebres should be so elegantly and artificially compacted and joined together, that they are as Strong and firm, as if they were but one Bone: That they should be all perforated in the Middle with a large Hole for the Spinal Marrow or Pith to pass along; and each Particular have a Hole on each Side to transmit the Nerves to the Muscles of the Body, to convey both Sense and Motion:
<1717>That by Reason of the forementioned close Connexion of the Vertebres, it should be so formed, as not to admit any great Flexture or Recess from a Right Line, any Angular, but only a moderate Circular Bending; lest the Spinal Pith should be compressed, and so the free Intercourse or Passage of the Spirits to and fro be stopd.
One Observation relating to the Motion of the Bones in their Articulations, I shall here add, That is, the Care that is taken, and the Provision that is made, for the easy and expediate Motion of them; their being to that Purpose a twofold Liquor prepared for the Inunction and Lubrification of their Heads or Ends, I. An Oily one, furnished by the Marrow: 2. A Mucilaginous, supplied by certain Glandules seated in the Articulations, both which together make up the most apt and proper Mixture for this Use and End that can be invented or thought upon. For not only both
the Ingredients are of a lubricating Nature; but there is this Advantage gained from their Composition, that they do mutually improve one another: For the Mucilage adds to the Lubricity of the Oil, and the Oil preserves the Mucilage from Inspissation, and contracting the Consistency of a Gelly: Now this Inunction is useful, indeed necesary, for three Ends chiefly.
1. For the facilitating of Motion. For tho the Ends of the Bones are very smooth, yet were they dry, they could not with that Readiness and ease, nay, not without great Difficulty, yield to and obey the Plucks and Attractions of the Motory Muscles ; as we see Clocks and Jacks, though the Screws and Teeth of the Wheels and Nuts be never so smooth and polishd, yet if they be not oild, will hardly move, tho you clog them with never so much Weight; but if you apply but a little Oil, they presently whirl about very swiftly with the tenth Part of the Force.
2. For preserving the Ends of the Bones from an Incalescency, which, they being hard and solid Bodies, would necessarily contract from a swift and long continuing Motion; such as that, of Running, or Mowing, or Threshing, or Sawing, and the like, if they immediately touched and rubbed against one another with that Force they must needs do; especially in running, the whole Weight of the Body bearing
upon the Joints of the Thighs and Knees: So we see in the Wheels of Waggons or Coaches, the Hollows of the Naves, by their swift Rotations on the Ends of the Axle-trees, produce a Heat, sometimes so intense, as to set them on fire, to prevent which, they stand in need to be frequently anointed or besmeard with a Mixture of Grease and Tar, imitating the forementioned natural Composition of Oil and Mucilage. Nay, Bodies softer a great deal than Metals, contract a great Heat by Attrition; as is evident from those black circular Lines we see on Boxes, Dishes, and other turned Vessels of Wood, which are the Effects of Ignition, caused by the Pressure of an edged Stick upon the Vessel turned nimbly in the Lathe. And if there had not been a Provision in the Joints against such a preternatural Incalescence upon their violent Motion, this would have made a slothful World, and confind us to Leisurely and deliberate Movements, when there were the most urgent and hasty Occasions to quicken us.
3. For the preventing of Attrition, and wearing down the Ends of the Bones by their Motion, and rubbing one against another, which is so violent and lasting sometimes, that it is a Wonder any Inunction should suffice, to secure their Heads from Wasting and Consumption. I have often seen the Tops of the Teeth which are of a harder Substance than the rest of the Bones ) worn off by Mastication, in Persons
who have lost most of their Grinders, and been compelled constantly to make use of three or four only in chewing, so low, that at last the inward Marrow and Nerve lay bare, and they could no longer, for Pain, make use of them. So that had there not been this Provision made for the anointing the Bones, the curious Workmanship of Nature in adapting them so exactly one to another, as was most fit for the easy Performance of all those Motions to which they were destined, would not suffice for Use : But the stirring Part of Mankind would soon find themselves fitter for an Hospital, than for Action, and the Pursuit of Business.
These Observations I acknowledge myself to have borrowed of a late ingenious Writer of Osteology <margin>Mr Clopton Havers</margin> who thus concludes his Discourse upon this Subject. And here we cannot avoid the Notice of the visible Footsteps of an infnite Reason, which as they are deeply impressed upon the Universe, so more especially on the sensible Parts of it in those rational Contrivances which are found in Animals : And we can never sufficiently admire the Wisdom and Providence of our great Creator, who has given all Parts in these animated Beings, not only such a Structure as renders them fit for their necessary Motions, and designed Functions, but withal the Benefit and Advantage of whatever may preserve them, or facilitate their Action.
Moreover, the Artifice of Nature is wonderful in the Construction of the Bones that
are to support the Body, and to bear great Burdens, or to be employed in strong Exercises, they being made hollow, for Lightness and Stiffness. For, we have before noted, a Body that is hollow may be demonstrated to be more rigid and inflexible, than a solid one of the same Substance and Weight. so that here is Provision made for the Stiffness and Lightness of the Bones. But the Ribs, which are not to bear any great Weight, or to be strongly exercised, but only to fence the Breast, have no Cavity in them, and towards the fore Part or Breast are broad and thin, that so they might bend and give way without Danger of Fracture; when bent returning by their elastick Property to their Figure again. Yet is not the Hollow of the Bones altogether useless, but serves to contain the Marrow; which supplies an Oil for the Maintaining and Inunction of the Bones and Ligaments, and so facilitating their Motion in the Articulations; and particularly which we mentioned not before) of the Ligaments, preserving them from Dryness and Rigidity, and keeping them supple and flexible, and ready to comply with all the Motions and Postures of that moveable Part to which they appertain: And lastly, to secure them from Disrupption, which, as strong as they are, they would be in some Danger of, upon a great and suddain Stretch or Contortion, if they were dry, etc. See more to this Purpose in the Treatise fore-quoted, p. 183.
That whereas the Breast is encompassed with Ribs, the Belly is left free; that it might give way to the Motion of the Midriff in Respiration; and to the necessary Reception of Meat and Drink; as also for the convenient Bending of the Body; and in Females, for that extraordinary Extension that is requisite in the Time of their Pregnancy. <**215>
<1717>That the Lungs should be made up of such innumerable Air-Pipes and Vesicles interwoven wlth Blood-Vessels in order to purify, ferment, or supply the sanguineous Mass with Nitro-Aerial Particles, which rush in by their Elastick Power upon the Muscular Extension of the Thorax, and so feed the Vital Flame and Spirits; for upon oberucting this Communication, all is presently extinct, no Circulation, no Motion, no Heat, nor any Sign of Life remains.</1717>
That the Stomach should be membranous and capable of Dilatation and Contraction, according to the Quantity of Meat contained in it, that it should be situate under the Liver which by its Heat might cherish it, and contribute to Concoction: That it should be endued with an acid <1717>or mandulous</1717> Ferment or some corruptive Quality for so speedy a Dissolution of the Meat, and Preparation of Chyle that after Concoction it should have an Ability of contracting itself, and turning out the Meat. <1717>That the Guts should immediately receive it from the Phylorous, farther elaborate, prepare,
and separate it, driving by their Peristaltick Motion the Chyle into the Lacteals, and the excrementitious Parts to the Podex, from whence there is no Regress, unless when the Valve of the Colon is torn and relaxd: But for the curious Structure of these Parts, see more in Kerkringius, Glisson, Willis, and Peyes. </1717>
That the Bladder should be made of a membranous Substance, and so extremely dilatable for receiving and containing the Urine, till Opportunity of emptying it; that it should have Shuts for the Ends of the Ureters so artificially contrived as to give the Urine free Entrance, but to ltop all Passge backward, so that they will not transmit the Wind, though it be strongly blown and forced in.
That the Liver should continually separate the Choler from the Blood, and empty it into the Intestines, where there is good Use for its not only to provoke Dejection, but also to attenuate the Chyle, and render it so subtle and fluid, as to enter in at the Orifices of the Lacteous Veins. <**216>
<1717>That in the Kidneys there should be such innumerable little Siphons or Tubes conveying the Urinose Particles to the Pelvis and Ureters, first discoverd by Bellini, and illustrated by Malpighy; that indeed all the Glands of the Body should be Congeries of various sorts of Vessels curd, circumgyrated, and complicated together, whereby they give the Blood time to stop and separate through the Pores of the
Capillary Vessels into the Secretory ones, which afterwards all exonerate themselves into one common Ductus ; as may be seen in the Works of Dr. Wharton, Graaf, Bartholine, Rudback, Bilsius, Malpighi, Nuck, and others. That the Glands should separate such Variety of Humours, all different in Colour, Taste, Smell, and other Qualities.</1717>
Finally, That all the Bones, and all the Muscles, and all the Vesels of the Body should be so admirably contrived, and adapted, and compacted together for their several Motions and Uses, and that most Geometrically, according to the strictest Rules of Mechanicks; that if in the whole Body
you change the Figure, Situation and Conjunction but of one Part, if you diminish or increase the Bulk and Magnitude: In fine, if you endeavour any Innovation or Alteration, you marr and Spoil, instead of Mending. How can all these Things put together, but beget Wonder and Astonishment ?
In the Muscles alone there seems to be more Geometry, than in all the artificial Engines in the World; and therefore the different Motions of Animals, are a Subject fit only for the great Mathematicians to handle; amongst whom, Steno, Dr. Croon, and above all, Alphonso Borelli, have made their Essays tolvards it.</1717>
That under one Skin there should be such infinite Variety of Parts, variously mingled, hard with soft, fluid with fixd, solid with hollow, those in Rest with those in Motion;
some with Cavities, as Mortesses to receive, others with Tenons to fit those Cavities; all these so packd and thrust so close together, that there is no unnecessary Vacuity in the whole Body, and yet so far from clashing or interfering one with another, or hindring each others Motions, that they do all friendly Conspire, all help and assist mutually one the other, all concurr in one general End and Design, the Good and Preservation of the Whole, are certainly Arguments and Effects of Infinite Wisdom and Counsel; so <**217> that he must needs be worse than mad that can find in his Heart to imagine all these to be casual and fortuitous, or not provided and designed by a most Wise and Intelligent Cause.
Every Part is cloathd, joind togethet, and corroborated by Membranes, which upon several Occasions (as Extravasations of Humours, Compressions or Obstructions of Vessels) are capable of a prodigious Extension, as we see in the Hydatides of the Female Testicles or Ovaries, in Hydropical Tumors of the Lymphaeducts, of the Scrotum and Peritonaeum, out of the last of which alone twenty and even forty Gallons of Water have been drawn by a Paracentesis, or Tapping, for which we have the undoubted Authority of Tulpius, Meekren, Pechlin, Blasius, and other Medical Writers. What vast Sacks and Bags are necessary to contain such a Collection of Water, which seems to issue from the Lymphaeducts, either delacerated or obstructed, and exonerating themselves
into the Foldings, or between the Duplicatures of the Membranes ?
Those Parts which one would think were of little Use in the Body, serving chiefly to fill up empty Spaces, as the Fat, if examined strictly, will be found very beneficial and serviceable to it. I. To cherish and keep it warm, by hindring the Evaporation of the hot Streams of Blood, as Cloaths keep us warm in Winter, by reflecting and doubling the Heat.
2. To nourish and maintain the Body for some Time when Food is wanting, serving as Fewel to preserve and continue the natural Heat of the Blood, which requires an oily or sulphureous Pabulum, as well as Fire. Hence, upon long Abstinence and Fasting, the Body grows lean. Hence also some Beasts, as the Marmotto, or Mus Alpinus, a Creature as big or bigger than a Rabbet, which absconds all Winter, doth (as Hildanus tells us) live upon its own Fat. For in the Autumn, when it shuts itself up in its Hole which it digs with its Feet like a Rabbet, making a Nest with Hay or Straw, to lodge ltself warm) it is very fat; [Hildanus took out above a Pound and a half of Fat between the Skin and Muscles, and a Pound out of the Abdomen] but on the contrary in the Spring-time when it comes forth again, very lean, as the Hunters experience in those they then take.
3. The Internal Fat serves for the Defence and Security of the Vessels, that they might lie soft, and be safely conveyd in their
Passage, wherefore it is especially gathered about them.
By what Pores, or Passages, or Vessels, the Fat is separated from the Blood when it is redundant, and again absorpt into it when it is deficient, is a Matter of curious Enquiry, and worthy to be industriously sought out by the most sagacious and dextrous Anatomists. The Vessels whereunto it is received, and wherein contained, are by the Microscope detected to be Bladders, and those doubtless perforated and pervious one into another; and though for their excessive Subtlety and Thinness they appear not in a lean Body, yet seem to have been primitively formed and provided by Nature to receive the Fat upon Occasion. Why the Fat is collected chiefly about some particular Parts and Vessels, and not others; as for Example, the Reins and the Caul, I easily consent with Galen and others, the Reason to be the cherishing and keeping warm of those Parts
upon which such Vessels are spread; so the Caul serves for the warming the lower Belly, like an Apron or Piece of Woolen Cloth. Hence a certain Gladiator, whose Caul Galen cut out, was so liable to suffer from the Cold, that he was constrained to keep his Belly constantly covered with Wool. For the Intestines containing a great deal of Food, thereto undergo its last Concoction, and no Vessels of Blood penetrating it, and flowing through it to keep it warm, they had need be defended from the Injuries of the external Air, by outward
Coverings. Why there should be such copious Fat gathered about the Reins to enclose them, is not so easy to discern: But surely there is a great and constant Heat required there for the Separation of the Urine from the Blood; the constant Separation and Excretion whereof, is necessary for the Preservation of Life. And we see, if the Blood be in any Degree chilld, the Secretion of Urine is in a great Measure stopt, and the Serum cast upon the Glandules of the Mouth and Throat. And if the Blood be extraordinarily heated by Exercise, or other wise, it casts off its Serum plentifully by Sweat, which may be effected by the swift Motion of the Blood through the Glandules of the Skin, where its plentiful Streams being strengthend and constipated into a Liquor, force their way through those Emunctories, which at other times transmit only insensible Vapors.
Some such Effect may be wrought upon the Blood, by the Heat of the Kidneys. Certain it is, that the Humours, excerned by Sweat and Urine, are near a-kin, if not the same; and therefore it is worthy the Consideration, whether there might not be some Use made of Sweating in a Suppression of Urine. But I digress too far.
I shall only add to this Particular, That because the Design of Nature in collecting Fat in these Places, is for the forementioned Use; it hath, for the effecting thereof, fitted the Vessels there with Pores or Passages proper for the Separation and Transmission of it.</1717>
I should now proceed to treat of the Generation and Formation of the Foetus in the Womb, but that is a Subject too difficult for me to handle; the Body of Man and other Animals being formed in the dark Recesses of the Matrix, or as the Psalmist phrases it, Psalm CXXXIX. 14. "made in secret, and curiosly wrought in the lowest Parts of the Earth." This Work is so admirable and unaccountable, that neither the Atheists nor Mechanick Philosophers have attempted to declare the Manner and Process of it; but have (as I noted before) very cautiously and prudently broke off thels Systems of Natural Philosophy here, and left this Point untouchd; and those Accounts which some of them have attempted to give of the Formation of a few of the Parts, are so excessively absurd and ridiculous, that they need no other Confutation than ha, ha, he.
And I have already farther shewn, that to me it seems impossible that Matter divided into as minute and subtle Parts as you will, or can imagine, and those moved according to what Catholick laws soever can be devised, <**218> should without the Presidency and Direction of some intelligent Agent, by the meer Agitation of a gentle Heat, run itself into such a curious Machine, as the Body of Man is.
Yet must it be confessd, that the Seed of Animals is admirably qualified to be fashioned and formed by the Plastick Nature into an Organical Body, containing the Principles or component Particles of all the several homogeneous
Parts thereof; for indeed every Part of the Body seems to club and contribute to the Seed, else why should parents that are born Blind or Deaf, or that want a Finger, or any other Part, or have one superfluous, sometimes generate Children that have the same Defects or Imperfections; and yet (which is wonderful) nothing of the Body or grosser Matter of the Seed comes near the first Principle of the Foetus, or in some so much as enters the Womb, but only some contagious Vapour, or subtle Effluviums thereof; <1717> which seems to animate the Gemma or Cicatricula of the Egg containd in the Female Ovary, before it passes through the Tubes, or Cornua, into the Uterus. How far the Animalcules observd in the Seed of Males, may contribute to Generation, I leave to the more sagacious Philosophers to enquire, and shall here content myself with referring the Reader to the several Letters publishd by Mr. Lewenhoek.
But to what shall we attribute the Foetus its Likeness to the Parents, or omitting them to the precedent Progenitors, as I have observd some Parents that have been both black Haird to have generated most red Haird Children because their Ancestors Hair hath been of that Colour; or why are Twins so <**220> often extremely alike? Whether is this owing to the Efficient, or to the Matter ?
Those Effluvia we spake of in the Male Seed, as subtle as they are, yet have they a great, if not the greatest Stroke in Generation, as is
clearly demonstrable in a Mule, which doth more resemble the Male Parant, that is the Ass, than the Female or Horse. But now, why such different Species should not only mingle together, but also generate an Animal, and yet that that hybridous Production should not again generate, and so a new Race be carried on, but Nature should stop here, and proceed no farther, is to me a Mystery, and unaccountable.
One thing relating to Generation I cannot omit; that is, the Construction of a Set of Temporary Parts, (like Scaffolds in a Building) to serve a present End, which are afterwards laid aside, afford a strong Argument of Counsel and Design. Now for the Use of the Young during its Enclosure in the Womb, there are several Parts formed, as the Membranes inveloping it, called the Secundines, the Umbilical Vessels, one Vein and two Arteries; the Urachus, to convey the Urine out of the Bladder, and the placenta uterina; Part whereof fall away at the Birth, as the Secundines and Placenta, others degenerate into Ligaments, as the Urachus, and <**220> part of the Umbilical Vein: besides which, because the Foetus during its Abode in the Womb, hath no Use of Respiration by the Lungs, the Biood doth not all, I may say not the greatest Part of it, flow through them; but there are two Passages or Channels contrived, one called the Foramen Ovale, by which Part of the Blood brought by the Vena Cava, passeth immediately into the
Left Ventricle of the Heart, without entring the Right at all; the other is a large Arterial Chanel passing from the pulmonary Artery immediately into the Aorta, or great Artery which likewise derives Part of the Blood thither; without running at all into the Lungs: These two are closed up soon after the Child is born, when it breathes no more (as I may so say) by the Placenta Uterina, but Respiration by the Lungs is needful for it.
It is here to be noted, that though the Lungs be formed so soon as the other Parts, yet during the Abode of the Foetus in the Womb, they lie by as useless. In like manner I have observed, that in ruminating Creatures, the three foremost Stomachs, not only during the Continuance of the Young in the Womb, but so long as it is fed with Milk, are unemployed and useless, the Milk passing immediately into the fourth. <**221>
Another Observation I shall add concerning Generation, which is of some moment, because it takes away some Concessions of Naturalists that give countenance to the Atheists fictitious and ridiculous Account of the first production of Mankind, and other Animals, viz. that all sorts of Insects, yea, and some Quadrupeds too, as Frogs and Mice, arc produced spontaneously. My Observation and Affirmation is, that there is no such thing in Nsture, as AEquivocal or Spontaneous Generation, but that all Animals, as well small as great, not excluding the vilest and most contemptible insect, are generated
by Animal Parents of the same Species with themselves; that Noble Italian Vertuoso, Francisco Redi, having experimented, that no
putrified Flesh (which one would think were the most likely of any thing) will of itself, if all Insects be carefully kept from it, produce any: The same Experiment, I remember, Dr. Wilkins, late Bishop of Chester, told me, had been made by some of the Royal Society. No Instance against this Opinion doth so much puzzle me, as Worms bred in the Intestines of Man, and other Animals. But Seeing the round Worms do manifestly generate, and probably the other Kinds too, its likely they come originally from Seed, which how it was <**222> brought into the Guts, may afierwards possibly be discovered.
Moreover, I am inclinable to believe, that all Plants too, that themselves produce Seed, which are all but some very imperfects ones, which scarce deserve the Name of Plants) come of Seeds themselves. For that great Naturalist Malpighius, to make Experiment whether Earth would of itself put forth Plants, took some purposely digged out of a deep place, and put it into a Glass-Vessel, the Top whereof he covered with Silk many times doubled, and strained over it, which would admit the Water and Air to pass through, but exclude the least Seed that might be wafted by the Wind; the Event was that no Plant at all sprang up in it; Nor need we wonder how in a Ditch, Bank, or Grass-Plat, newly digd, or in the Fen-Banks in the Isle of ElY, Mustard
should abundantly Spring up, where, in the Memory of Man, none hath been known to grow, for it might come of Seed wnich had lain there more than a Mans Age. some of the Ancients mentioning some Seeds that retain thoir Fecundity Forty Years.
And I have found in a Paper received from a Friend, but whom I have forgotten, That Melon-Seeds, after Thirty Years, are best for raising of Melons. As for the Mustard that sprung up in the Isle of Ely, though there had never been any in that Country, yet might it laave been brought down in the Chanels by the Floods, and so being thown up the Banks, together with the Earth, might germinate and grow there.
And, indeed, a Spontaneous Generation of Antmals and Plants, upon due Examination will be found to be nothing less than a Creation of thern. For after the Matter was made, and the Sea and dry Land separated, how is the Creation of Plants and Animals described but by a commanding, that is, effectually causing the Waters and Earth to produce their several Kinds without any Seed ? Now Creation being the Work of Omnipotency, and incommunicable to any Creature, it must be beyond the Power of Nature or natural Agents, to produce things after that manner. And as for God Almighty, He is said to have rested from His Work of Creation after the Seventh Day. But if there be any Spontaneous Generation there was nothing done at the Creation, but what is daily done; for the Earth and Water
producd Animals then without Seed, and so they do still.
Because some, I understand, have been offended at my consident Denial of all Spontaneous Generation, accounting it too bold and groundless, I shall a little enlarge upon it, and give my Reasons, in order to their Satisfaction.
First, then, I say, such a Spontaneous Generation seems to me to be nothing less than a Creation. For, Creation being not only a Production of a Thing out of Nothing, but also out of indisposed Matter, as may be clearly inserred from the Scripture, and is agreed by all Divines; this Spontaneous Generation, being such a Production, wherein doth it differs from Creation ? Or, what did God Almighty do at the first Creation of Animals and Plants, more than what (if this be true) we see every day done ? To me, I must consess, it seems almost demonstrable, that whatever Agent can introduce a Form into indisposed Matter, or dispose the Matter in an instant, must be superior to any natural one, not to say Omnipotent.
Secondly, Those who have with the greatest Diligence and Application considered and searched into this Matter, as those eminent Virtuosi, Marcellus Malpighius, Franciscus Redi, John Swammerdam, Lewenhoek, and many others, are unanimously of this Opinion, save
that Franc. Redi would except such Insects as are bred in Galls, and some other Excrescencies
of Plants. Now their Authority weighs more with me, than the general Vogue, or the concurrent Suffrages of a thousand others who never examined the thing so carefully and circumspectly as they have done, but run away with the Cry of the common Herd of Philosophers.
First of all, Dr. Swammerdam, who hath been, to the best Purpose of any Man I know of, busied in searching out and observing the Nsture of all Insects in general; all in general I say (for as to one particular Insect, to wit, the Silk-Worm, I must except Signior Malpighy; and to one genus of them, to wit, Spiders, Dr. Lister ; in his general History of Insects, written in Low Dutch, and translated into French, p. 47. hath these Words, <french>Nous disons, quil ne fait dans toute la nature aucune generation par accident, &c.</french> We affirm, that there is not in all Nature any accidental [or Spontaneous] Generation, but all come by Propagation; wherein Chance hath not the least Part or Interest. And in p.159. speaking of the Generation of Insects out of Plants, in Contradiction I suppose to Signior Redi, he saith, <french>Nous croyons absolument, &c.</french> We do absolutely believe that it is not possible to prove by Experience, that any Insects are engendred out of Plants: But on the contrary, we are very well informed and assured, that these little Animals are not Shut up in or enclosed there for any other Reason than to draw thence their Nourishment. Its true indeed, that by a certain, constant, and
immutable Order of Nature, we see many sorts of Insects affixed to particular Species of Plants and Fruits, to which the respective Kinds fasten themselves as it were by Instinct. But we are to know, that they all come of the Seed of Animalcules of their own Kind, that were before laid there. For these Insects do thrust their Seed or Eggs so deep into the Plants, that they come to be afterwards as it were united with them, and the Aperture or Orifice by which they entred, quite closed up, and obliterated; the Eggs being hatched and nourished within. We have often found the Eggs of Insects so deeply sunk into the tender Buds of Trees, that without hurting of them it was impossible to draw them out. Many Instances he produces in several sorts of Insects making their way into Plants, which, though they be well worth the reading, are too long to transcribe.
Secondly, That Great and Sagacious Naturalist, and most Accurate Examiner of these things, Signior Malpighy, in his Treatise of Galls, under which Name he comprehends all Preternatural and Morbose Tumors and Excrescencies of Plants, doth demonstrate in particular, that all such Warts, Tumors, and Excrescencies, where any Insects are found, are excited or raised up either by some Venenose Liquor, which together with their Eggs, such Insects shed upon the Leaves, or Buds, or Fruits of Plants, or boring with their Terebrae, instill into the very Pulp of such Buds or Fruits; or by the contagious Vapor of the very Eggs
themselves producing a Mortification or Syderation in the Parts of Plants on which they are laid; or lastly, by the Grubs or Maggots hatchd of the Eggs laid there, making their way with their Teeth into the Buds, Leaves, or Fruit, or even the Wood itself, of such Plants on which their Eggs were laid.
So at last he concludes, <latin>Erunt itaque Gallae et reliqui plantarum tumores morbosae excrescentiae, vi depositi ovi à turbata plantarum compage, et vitiato humorum motu excitatae, quibus inclusa ova et animalcula velut in utero foventur et augentur, donec manifestatis firmatisquc propriis partibus, quasi exoriantur novam exoptantia auram.</latin> We conclude therefore, that Galls, and other Tumors of Plants, are nothing else but Morbose Excrescencies, raised up by the Force of the Eggs there laid, disturbing the Vegetation and temper of the Plants, and perverting the Motion of their Humours and Juices; wherein the enclosed Eggs and Animalcules are cherished, nourished, and augmented, till their proper Parts being manifested, explicated, and hardned, or strengthned, they are as it were new-born, affecting to come forth into the open Air. In the same Treatise he describes the hollow Instrument, (Terebra he calls it, and we may English it Piercer) wherewith many Flies are provided, proceeding from the Womb, with which they perforate the Tegument of Leaves, Fruits, or Buds, and through the hollow of it inject their Eggs into the Holes or Wounds which they have made, where, in process of Time, they are hatchd and nourished.
This he beheld one of these Insects doing, with his own Eyes, in the Bud of an Oak; the manner whereof he describes, p. 47. which I shall not transcribe, only take Notice, that when he had taken off the Insects, he found in the Leaf very little and Diaphanous Eggs, exactly like to those which yet remained in the Tubes of the Flys Womb. He adds farther, that it is probable, that there may be Eggs hidden in divers Parts of Plants, whereof no Footstep doth outwardly appear, but the Plant remains as entire, and thrives as well as if there were no Insect there: Nay, that some may be hidden and cherished in dry Places, (not wanting any Humour to feed them) as in Sear-Wood, yeas in Earthen-Vessels, and Marbles themselves.
Indeed to me it seems unreasonable, that Plants being of a lower Form or Order of Being, should produce Animals; for either they must do it out of indisposed Matter, and then such Production would amount to a Creation, or else they must prepare a fit Matter, which is to act beyond their Strength, there being required to the Preparation of the Sperm of Animals a great Apparatus of Vessels, and many Secretions, Concoctions, Reflexions, Digestions and Circulations of the Matter, before it can be rectified and exalted into so noble a Liquor: And Besides, there must be an Egg, too; for we know <latin>ex ovo omnia,</latin> to the Perfection whereof; there are as many Vessels, and as long a Process required. Now in Plants there are no such Vessels, and consequently no such
Preparation of Eggs or Sperm, which are the necessary Principles of Animals.
Thirdly, that worthy Author of our own Country, I mean Dr. Lister, in his Notes Upon Geodartius Insect. Numb. 16. p. 47. hath these Words, <latin>Non enim inducor ut credam, hoc, vel aliud quodvis Animal, modo quodam spontaneo è Planta produci, et alii causae cuicunque originem suam debere quam Parenti Animali;</latin> i.e. I cannot be perruaded or induced to believe, that this or any other Animal is (or can be) produced out of a Plant in a spontaneous Manner, or doth owe its Original to any other Cause whatever, than an Animal Parent of its own Kind. And in his third Note upon Insect. Numb. 49. these, <latin>Quoad spontaneam Erucae hujus aliorumque Insectorum generationem pro parte negativa jam sententiam meam tradidi, &c.</latin> As to the Spontaneous Generation of this Eruca, and other Insects, I have already delivered my Opinion for the Ncgative. This is most certain, that these Cossi are produced of Eggs laid by Animal Parents. It is also alike clear, that these diminutive Caterpillars are able by Degrees to piercc or bore their way inio a Tree which very small Holes, after they are fullly entred, do perchance grow together, and quite disappear; at least become so small that they are not to be discerned, unless by Lynceuss Eyes. Add moreover, that perchance they undergo no Transformation, but continue under the Vizzard of [Erucae] Caterpillars for many Years, which doth very well accord with my Observations. Moreover, that this Caterpillar [Eruca] is propagated
by Animal Parents, to wit, Butterflies, after the common Origination of all Caterpillars. In all this I fully consent with the Doctor; only crave leave to differ in his attributing to them the Name of Cossi, which were accounted by the Ancients of a delicate Morsel, and fed for the Table; for I take those to have been the Hexapods, from which the greater sort of Beetles come; for that that sort of Hexapods are at this Day eaten in our American Plantations, as I am informed by my good Friend Dr. Hans
Sloane, who also presented me with a Glass of them, preserved in Spirit of Wine.
Having lately had an Opportunity more curiously to view and examine the great flesh-colourd, thin-haird English Caterpillar, which is so like that sent me by Dr. Sloane, that it differs little but in Magnitude, which may be owing to the Climate,) I observed that it had a Power of drawing its eight hind Legs or Stumps so far up in its Body, that they did altogether disappear, so that the Creature seemed to want them, and of thrusting them out again at Pleasure : Whereupon I conjectured, That that Insect of Jamaica sent me by the Dodor, which I took to be the Cossus or Hexapod, previous to some large Beetle) had likewise the same Power of drawing up its hind Legs; so that though to Appearance it wanted them yet really it did not so, but had only drawn them up, and hid them in its Body, when it was immersed in the Spirit of Wine, and consequently was not the Hexapod of a Beetle, but an
Eruca, like to, or indeed specifically the same with that of our own Country by me observed; and being eaten at this Day by the Inhabitants of Jamaica, in all likelihood the same with the Cossus of the ancient Romans, which was fed for the Table, as Pliny assures us: Especially, if we consider, that Dr. Lister found this Eruca in the Body of an Oak newly cut down, and sawed in Pieces; on which Tree, Pliny saith, they feed. Thus much I thought fit to add to Dr. Lister, and do the Truth right, by retracting my former Conjecture concerning the Cossi.
3. My third Argument against Spontaneous Generation, is, because there are no Arguments or Experiments, which the Patrons of it do or can produce, which do clearly evince it. For the general and vulgar Opinion, that the Heads of Children, or the Bodies of those that do not change their Linen, but wear that which is sweaty and sordid, breeds Lice; or that Cheese of itself breeds Mites or Maggots, I deny, and look upon it as a great Error and Mistake; and do affirm, that all such Creatures are bred of Eggs laid in such sordid Places by some wandring Louse, or Mite, or Maggot. For such Places being most proper for the Hatching and Exclusion of their Eggs, and for the Maintenance of their Young, Nature hath endued them with a wonderful Acuteness of Scent and Sagacity, whereby they can, though far distant, find out, and make towards them. And even Lice and Mites themselves, as now as
they seem to be, can, to my knowledge, in no long time march a considerable way to find out a convenient Harbour for themselves.
Here, by the by, I cannot but look upon the Strange Instinct of this noisome and troublesome Creature the Louse, of searching out foul and nasty Cloaths to harbour and breed in, as an Effect of Divine Providence, designed to deterr Men and Women from Sluttishness and Sordidness, and to provoke them to Cleanliness and Neatness. God himself hateth Uncleanliness, and turns away from it, as appears by Deut. cap. xxiii. ver. 12, 13, 14. But if God requires, and is Pleased with bodily Cleanliness, much more is he so with the Pureness of the Mind. Blessed are the pure in Heart, for they shall see God, Matth. v. 10.
As for the Generation of Insects out of putrid Matter, the Experiments of Franciscus Redi, and some of our own Virtuosi, give me sufficient Reason to reject it. I did but just now mention the quick Scent that Insects have, and the great Sagacity in finding out a proper and convenient Harbour or Matrix, to cherish and hatch their Eggs, and feed their Young: They are so acted and directed by Nature, as to cast their Eggs in such Places as are most accommodate for the Exclusion of their Young, and where there is Food ready for them as soon as they be hatchd: Nay, it is a very hard matter to keep off such Insects from shedding their Seed in such proper Places. Indeed, if an Insect may be thus equivocally generated, why not
sometimes a Bird ? a Quadruped, a Man, or even an Universe ? Or, why no new Species of Animal now and then ? As my learned Friend Dr. Tancred Robinson very well argues in his Letters: For there is as much Art shewn in the Formation of those, as of these.
A fourth and most effectual Argument against Spontaneous Generation, is, that there are no new Species produced, which would certainly now and then, nay, very often happen, were there any such thing. For in such pretended Generations, the Generant or Active Principle is supposed to be the Sun, which being an inanimate Body, cannot act otherwise than by his Heat; which Heat can only put the Particles of the passive Principle into Motion. The passive Principle is putrid Matter; the Particles whereof cannot be conceived to differ in any thing, but Figure, Magnitude, and Gravity. Now the Heat putting these Particles in Motion, may indeed gather together those which are homogeneous, or of the same Nature, and separate those that are heterogeneous, or of a different; but that it should so situate, place, and connect them, as we see in the Bodies of Animals, is altogether inconceivable; which, if it could, yet that it should always run them into such a Machine as is alreadv extant, and not often into some new-fashioned one, such as was never seen before, no Reason can be assignd or imagined. This the Epicurean Poet Lucretius was so sensible of, that he saw a Necessity of granting Seeds or Principles to determine
the Species. For (saith he) if all sorts of Principles could be connected,
<latin>Vulgo fieri portenta videres,
Semiferas hominum species existere, et altos
Interdum ramos egigni corpore vivo;
Multaque connecti terrestria membra marinis;
Tum flammam retro spirantes ore chimaeras
Pascere naturam per terras omniparenteis
Quorum nil fieri manifestum est, omnia quando
Seminibus certis, certa genetrice, creata
Conservare genus crescentia posse videmus, &c.</latin>
That is, Thence would rise
Vast Monsters, Natures great Absurdities;
some thing half Beast, half Man, and some would grow
Tall Trees above, and Animals below;
Some joind of Fish, and Beasts, and every where
Frightful Chimaeras breathing Flames appear.
But since we see no such, and Things arise
From certain Seeds of certain Shape and Size,
And keep their Kind as they increase and grow;
Theres some fixt Reason why it should be so.
The raining of Frogs and their Generation in the Clouds, though it be attested by many and great Authors, I look upon as utterly false and ridiculous. It seems to me no more likely, that Frogs should be engenderd in the Clouds, than Spanish Gennets begotten by the Wind ; for that hath good Authors too. And he that can swallow the raining of Frogs hath
made a fair Step towards believing, that it may rain Calves also; for we read, that one fell out of the Clouds in Avicens Time. Nor do they much help the matter, who say, that those Frogs that appear sometimes in great Multitudes after a Shower, are not indeed engendred in the Clouds, but coagulated of a certain sort of Dust, commixt and fermented with Rain-water; to which Hypothesis Fromondus adheres.
But let us a little consider the Generation of Frogs in a natural Way.
1. There are two different Sexes, which must concur to their Generation. 2. There is in both a great Apparatus of Spermatick Vessels, wherein the nobler and more spirituous Part of the Blood, is by many Digestions, Concoctions, Reflexions, and Circulations, exalted into that generous Liquor we call Sperm; and likewise for the preparing of the Eggs. 3. There must be a Copulation of the Sexes, which I rather mention, because it is the most remarkable in this, that ever I observed in any Animal. For they continue in complexu Venereo, at least a Month indefinitely; the Male all that while resting on the Back of the Female, clipping and embracing ller wlth his Legs about the Neck and Body, and holding her so fast, that if you take him out of the Water, he will rather bear her whole Weight, than let her go. This I observed in a couple, kept on Purpose in a Vesel of Water, by my Learned and Worthy Friend Mr. John Nid, Fellow of Tribity College, long
since deceased. After this, the Spawn must be cast into Water, where the Eggs lie in the midst of a copious Gelly, which serves them for their first Nourishment for a considerable while. And at last, the Result of all is not a perfect Frog, but a Tadpole without any Feet, and having a long Tail to swim withall; in which Form it continues a long time, till the Limbs be grown out, and the Tail fallen away, before it arrives at the Perfection of a Frog.
Now, if Frogs can be generated spontaneously in the Clouds out of Vapour, or upon the Earth out of Dust and Rain-Water, what needs all this a-do ? To what purpose is there such an Apparatus of Vessels for the Elaboration of the Sperm and Eggs; such a tedious Process of Generation and Nutrition ? This is but an idle Pomp. The Sun (for he is supposed to be the equivocal Generant or Efficient by these Philosophers) could have dilpatchd the Business in a trice: Give him but a little Vapour, or a little dry Duft and Rain-Water, he will produce you a quick Frog, nay, a whole Army of them, perfectly formd, and fit for all the Functions of Life in three Minutes, nay, in the hundredth Part of one Minute, else must some of those Frogs that were generated in the Clouds fall down half-formed and imperfect, which I never heard they did; and the Process of Generation have been observed in the Product;on of Frogs out of Dust and Rain-Water, which no Man ever pretended to mark or discern. But that there can be no Frogs
generated in the Clouds, may farther be made appear, 1. From the extreme Cold of the middle Region of the Air; where the Vapours are turned into Clouds, which is not at all propitious to Generation. For did not so great Men as Aristotle and Erasmus report it, I could hardly be induced to believe that there could be one Species of Insects generated in Snow 2. Because, if there were any Animals engenderd in the Clouds, they must needs be maimed and dashed in Pieces by the fall, at least such as fell in the High-ways, and upon the Roofs of Houses; whereas we read not of any such broken or imperfect Frogs found any where. This Last Argument was sufficient to drive off the Learned Fromondus from the Belief of their Generation in the Clouds; but the Matter of Fact he takes for granted, I mean the Spontaneous Generation of Frogs out of Dust and Rain-Water, from an Observation or Experiment of his own at the Gates of Tournay in Flanders, to the Sight of which Spectacle, he called his Friends who were there present, that they might admire it with him. A sudden Shower (saith he) falling spon the very dry Dust, there suddenly appeared such an Army of little Frogs, leaping about every where upon the dry Land, that there was almost nothing else to be seen. They were also of one Magnitude and Colour; ncither did it appear out of what lurking Places [Latibula] so many Myriads could creep out, and suddenly discover themselves upon the dry and dusty soil, which they hate. But
having the Reverence due to so great a Man, I doubt not but they did all creep out of their Holes and Coverts, invited by the agreeable Vapour of the Rain-Water. This, however unlikely it may seem, is a thousand Times more probable than their instantaneous and undiscernible Generation out of a little dry Dust and Rain-Water, which also cannot have any time to mix and ferment together, which is the Hypothesis he adheres to. Nay, I affirm, that it is not at all improbable; for he that shall walk out in Summer-Nights, when it begins to grow dark, may observe such a Multitude of great Toads and Frogs crawling about in the High-ways, Paths and Avenues to Houses, Yards and Walks of Gardens and Orchards, that he will wonder whence they came, or where they lurkd all the Winter, and all the Day-time, for that then its a rare thing to find one.
To which add, That in such Frogs as we are speaking of, Monsieur Perault hath, upon Dissection, often found the Stomach full of Meat, and the Intestines of Excrement; whence he justly concludes, That they were not then first formed, but only appeared of a sudden; which is no great wonder, since upon a Shower; after a Drought, Earth-Worms and Land-Snails innumerable come out of their lurking Places in like manner.
In Confirmation of what I have here written against the Spontaneous Generation of Frogs, either in the Clouds out of Vapour, or
on the Earth out of Dust and Rain-Water commixd; endeavouring to prove, by Force of Argument, that there is no such thing, I have lately received from my Learned and Ingenious Friend Mr. William Derham, Rector of Upmister, near Rumford in Essex, a Relation parallel to that of Fromondus, concerning the sudden Appearance of a vast Number of Frogs after a Shower or two of Rain marching cross a sandy way, that before the Rain was very dusty; and giving an Account, where in all Likelihood they were generated by Animal Parents of their own Kind, and whence they did proceed. The whole Narrative I shall give the Reader in his own Words.
"Some Years ago, as I was riding forth one Afternoon in Berks, I happened upon a prodigious Multitude creeping cross the way. It was a standy soil, and the Way had been full of Dust, by Reason of a dry Season that then was. But an Hour or two before a refreshing fragrant Shower or two of Rain had laid the Dust. Whereupon, what I had heard or rcad of the Raining of Frogs immediately came to my Thoughts, as it easily might do, there being probably as good Reason then for me, as I believe any ever had before, to conclude, that these came from the Clouds, or were instantaneously generated. But being prepossessed with the contrary Opinion, viz. that there was no equivocal generation, I was very curious in enquiring whence this vast Colony might probably come : and upon searching, I found two or three Acres of Land
coverd with this black Regiment, and that they all marched the same Way towards some Woods, Ditches, and such like cool Places in their Front, and from large Ponds in their Rear. I traced them backwards, even to the very Side of one of the Ponds. These Ponds in spawning time always used to abound much with Frogs, whose Croaking I have heard at a considerable Distance; and a great deal of Spawn I have found there.
From these Circumstances I concluded, that this vast Colomy was bred in those Ponds from whenceward they steered their Course: That after their Incubation (if I may so call it) or Hatch ing by the Sun, and their having passd their Tadpole-state; they had lived (till that Time of their Migration) in the Waters, or rather on the Shore, among the Flags, Rushes, and long Grass : But now being invited out by the refreshing Showers, then newly fallen, which made the Earth cool and moist for their March, that they left their old Latibula, where perhaps they had secured all their proper Food, and were now in Pursuit of Food, or a more convenient Habitation.
This I think not only reasonable to be concluded, but withall so easy to have been discovered by any inquisitive Observer, who in former Times met with the like Appearance, that I cannot but admire that such sagacious Philosophers, a Aristotle, Pliny, and many others since, should ever imaagine Frogs to fall down the Clouds, or be any way instantaneously, or spontaneously generated ;
especially considering how openly they act their Coition, produce Spawn, this Spawn Tadpoles, and Tadpoles Frogs.
Neither in Frogs only, but also in many other Creatures, as Lice, Flesh-Flies, Silk-Worms, and other Papilios, an uniform regular Generation was very obvious, which is an argument to me of a strange Pre-possession of fancy in the Ages since Aristotle, not to say of Carelessness and Sloth, so far Mr. Derham.
In like manner, doubtless Fromondus, had he made a diligent search, might have found out the Place where those Myriads of Frogs, observed by him about the Gates of Tournay, were generated, and whence they did proceed.
As for the Worms and other Animals bred in the Intestines of Man and Beast, I have declared my self not to be satisfied of the Ways and Means how their Seeds corme to be conveyed into those Places; but yet, that their Generation is Analogous to that of other Creatures of those Kinds, I doubt not. The Constancy to their Species; their exact Agreement and perpetual Similitude in the Shape and Figure of their Bodies, and all their Parts; their Consistence, Temper, Motion, and other Accidents, are to me little less than a Demonstration, that they are not the Effects of Chance, but the Products of a settled and spermatick Principle. I am at present, till better informed, of Opinion, that their Eggs are swallowed with the Meat we eat ; and I am the
rather induced to think so, because Children in their first Infancy, and as long as they are constantly confined to a Milk Diet, are seldom troubled with them.
After this was written, I received a Letter from my often remembred ingenious Friend Dr. Tancred Robinson, referring to this Matter, part whereof I shall transcribe, as being very pertinent, instructive, and consonant to my own Thoughts;
"I think it may be proved that the vast Variety of Worms found in almost all the Parts of different Animals, as well Terrestrial as Aquatick, are taken into their respective Bodies by Meats and Drinks, and there either lie still for some time, or else grow and alter by Change of Place and Food, [not specifically, but accidentally, in Magnitude, Colour, Figure of some Parts, or the like.] We know as yet but little of the numerous Insects bred in Water, or indeed of those in Roots, Leaves, Buds, Flowers, Fruits, and Seeds, which we are continually swallowing; and these too all vary according to Climate; [That is, the same Species of Roots, Leaves, etc. do in different Climater produce many different Species of Insects, tho some there be common to all; ] the long slender Worms, as small as Hairs, that breed between the Skin and the Flesh in the Isle of Ormuz, and in India, which are generally twisted out upon Sticks or Rowlers, and often break in the Operation, are without doubt taken in by the Water they drink in those Regions, as I could prove by many and good Experiments, had I time. They
who have Leisure, may find them in the Collections of Voyages and Travels, especially in Monsieur Thevenot. By this Explication we may give a better Account of the Vomitings up of Tadpoles, Snails, and other Animals, recorded in Medical Histories, than by any Hypothesis of Equivocal Generation: As to Insects found in stinking Flesh, or rotten Vegetables, I could never observe or find any of them different frgo1; thofie Parent Insects, which hover about or feed upon such Bodies.
If any shall object the infinite Multitudes of Animalcules discovered in Pepper-Water, and desire an Account of their Generation; to him, I shall say, that it is probable, that some few of these Animals may be floating in all Waters, and that finding the Particles of Pepper swimming in the Water, very proper for the cherishing and excluding of their Eggs, by Reason of their Heat, or some other unknown and specifick Quality, they may fasten their Eggs to them, and so there may be a sudden Breed of infinite Swarms of then . But these being not to be discerned by the most piercing and Lyncean sight, without the Assistance of a Microscope, I leave the Manner of their Generation to future Discovery.
No less difficult is it to give an Account of the Original of such Insects as are found and seem to be bred in the Bodies of others of different Kinds. Out of the Sides and Back of the most common Caterpillar, which feeds upon Cabbage, Cole-wort, and Turnep-Leaves,
which we have described in the Catalogue of Cambridge-Plants, we have seen creep out small Maggots, to the Number sometimes of Threescore, or more; which so soon as ever they came forth, began to weave themselves silken Cases of a yellow shining Colour, wherein they changed, and, after some Time, came out thence in the Form of small Flies with four Wings; for a full Description and History whereof, I shall refer the Reader to the forementioned Catalogue. The like I have also observed in other Caterpillars of a different Kind, which have produced no lesser Number of Maggots, that in like manner immediately made themselves up in Cases. Others, instead of changing into Aurelias, as in the usual Process of Nature they ought to do, have turned into one, two, three, or more Flesh-Fly Cases, at least contained such Cases within them, out of which, after a while, were excluded Flesh-Flies. Other Caterpillars, as that called the solitaty Maggot, found in the dry Heads of Teasel, by a dubious Metamorphosis, sometimes changed into the Aurelia of a Butterfly, sometimes into a Fly-Case. Youll say, How comes this to pass? Must we not here necessarily have Recourse to a spontaneous Generation ? I Answer, No: The most that can be inserred from hence is, a Transmutation of Species; one Insect may, instead of generating another of its own Kind, beget one or more of a different. But I can by no means grant this. I do believe that these Flies
do either cast their Eggs upon the very Bodies of the forementioned Caterpillars, or upon the Leaves on which they feed, all in a String; which there hatching, eat their Way into the Body, where they are nourished till they be come to their full Growth. Or it may be, the Fly may with the hollow and sharp Tube of her Womb punch and perforate the very Skin of the Eruca, and cast her Eggs into its Body. So the Ichneumon will convey her Eggs into Caterpillars
The Discovery of the Manner of the Generation of these sorts of Insects I earnestly recommend to all ingenious Naturalists, as a Matter of great Moment. For if this Point be but cleared, and it be demonstrated that all Creatures are generated univocally by Parents of their own Kind, and that there is no such thing as Spontaneous Generation in the World, one main Prop and Support of Atheism is taken away, and their strongest Hold demolished: they cannot then exemplify their foolish Hypothesis of the Generation of Man and other Animals at first, by the Like of Frogs and Insects at this present Day.
It will be farther objected, that there have live Toads been found in the midst of Timber Trees; nay, of Stones, when they have been sawn asunder.
To this I Answer, that I am not fully satisfied of the Matter of Fact. I am so well acquainted with the Credulity of the Vulgar, and the Delight they, and many of the better
Sort too, have in telling of Wonders and strange Things, that I must have a Thing well attested, before I can give a firm Assent to it.
Since the Writing hereof, the Truth of these Relations of live Toads found in the midst of Stones, hath been confirmed to me by sufficient and credible Eye-witnesses, who have seen them taken out. so that there is no doubt of the Matter of Fact.
But yet, suppose it be true, it may be accounted for. Those Animals, when young and little, finding in the Stone some small Hole reaching to the Middle of it, might, as their Nature is, creep into it, as a fit Latibulum for the Winter, and grow there too big to return back by the Passage by which they enterd, and so continue imprisoned therein for many Years; a little Air, by Reason of the Coldness of the Creature, and its Lying torpid there, sufficing it for Respiration, and the Humour of the Stone, by Reason it lay immoveable, and spent not, for Nourishment. And I do believe, that if those who found such Toads, had diligently searched, they might have discovered and traced the Way whereby they enterd in, or some Footsteps of it. Or else there might fall down into the lapideous Matter before it was concrete into a Stone some small Toad, (or some Toad Spawn) which being not able to extricate itself and get out again, might remain there imprisoned till the Matter about it were condensed and
compacted into a Stone. But however it came there, I dare considently affirm, it was not there spontaneously generated. For else, either there was such a Cavity in the Stone before the Toad was generated; which is altogether improbable, and Gratis Dictum, asserted without any Ground; or the Toad was generated in the solid Stone, which is more unlikely than the other, in that the soft Body of so small a Creature should extend itself in such a Prison, and overcome the Strength and Resistance of such a great and ponderous Mass of solid Stone.
And whereas the Assertors of Equivocal Generation were wont to pretend the Imperfection of there Animals, as a Ground to facililtate the Belief of their Spontaneous Generation; I do affirm, that they are as perfect in their Kind, and as much Art shewn in the Formation of them, as of the greatest; nay more too, in the Judgment of that great Wit and Natural Historian Pliny <margin>Lib 11 cap 2</margin>. <latin>In magnis siquidem corporibus, (saith he) aut certe majoribus facilis officina sequaci materia fuit; in his tam parvis atque tam nullis, quae ratio, quanta vis, quam inextricabilis perfectio?</latin> In the greater Bodies the Forge was easy, the Matter being ductile and sequacious, obedient to the Hand and Stroke of the Artificer; apt to be drawn, formed or moulded into such Shapes and Machines, even by clumsy Fingers: But in the Formation of these, such diminutive Things, such Nothings, what
Cunning and Curiosity ! What Force and Strength was requisite, there being in them such inextricable Perfection !
To what Proofs or Examples of Spontaneous Generation may be brought from Insects bred in the Fruits or Excrescencies of Plants, I have already made Answer in my second Particular, which contains the Testimonies of our best modern Naturalists concerning these Things.
In my Denial of the Spontaneous Generation of Plants, I am not so consident and peremptory; but yet there are the same Objections and Arguments against it, as against that of Animals, viz. because it would be a Production out of indisposed Matter, and consequently a Creation: Or if it be said, there is disposed Matter, prepared by the Earth, or Sun, the Heat, or whatever other Agent you can assign; I reply, this is to make a thing act beyond its Strength, that is, an inserior Nature which hath nothing of Life in it, to prepare Matter for a superior, which hath some Degree of Life; and for the Preparation of which, it hath no convenient Vessels or Instruments. If it could do so, what need of all that apparatus of Vessels, Preparation of Seed, and, as I also suppose, Distinction of Masculine and Feminine that we see in Plants ? I demand farther, whether any of the Patrons of Spontaneous Generation in Plants, did ever see any Herbs or Trees, except those of the Grass-leaved Tribe, come up without two Seed-Leaves;
which if they never did or could, it is to me a great Argument that they came all of Seed; there being no Reason else, why they should at first produce two Seed-Leaves different from the Subsequent. And if all these Species which are far the greatest Number) come from Seed, there is not the least reason to think that any of the rest come up spontaneously. And this, with what have written before, may suffice concerning this Point.
Whereas I have often written in many Places that such and such Plants are spontaneous, or come up spontaneously; I mean no more by that Expression, but that they were not planted or sown there industriously by Man.
Having spoken of the Body of Man, and the Uses of its Several Parts and Members, I shall add some other Observations, giving an Account of the particular Structure, Actions and Uses of some Parts, either common to whole Kinds of Animals, or proper to some particular Species different from those of Man and of the Reason of some Instincts and Actions of Brutes.
First of all, The Manner of Respiration, and the Organs serving thereto in various Animals, are accommodated to their Temper of Body, and their Place and Manner of living ; of which I have observed in more perfecot Animals three Difeerences.
1. The hotter Animals, which require abundance of Spirits for their various Motions and Exercises, are provided with Lungs, which indefinently draw in and expell the Air alternately without Intermission, and have a Heart furnished with two Ventricles, because to maintain the Blood in that Degree of Heat, which is requisite to the Performance of the Actions of all the Muscles, there is abundance of Air necessary. I shall not now take notice of the Difference that is between the Lungs of Quadrupeds and Birds, how the one are fixed and immoveable, the other loose and moveable; the one perforated, transmitting the Air into large Bladders, the other enclosed with a Membrane.
It is here worth the Notice taking, that many Animals of this Kind, both Birds and Quadrupeds, will endure and bear up against the extremest Rigor of Cold that our Country is exposed to. Horsc, Kine and Sheep, as I have experienced, will lie abroad in the open Air upon the cold Ground during our long Winter-Nights, in the sharpest and severest Frosts that ever happened with us, without any Harm or Prejudice at all ; whereas one would think, that at least the Extremities of their Members should be bitten, benummed and mortified thereby. Considering with myself by what Means they were enabled to do this, and to abide and resist the Cold, it occurrd to my Thoughts, that the Extremities of their Toes were fencd with Hoofs, which in good Measure
secured them: But the main thing was that the Cold is, as it were its own Antidote; for the Air being fully charged and sated with nitrous, or some other sort of Particles which are the great Efficients of Cold, and no less also the Pabulum of Fire) when inspired, doth by means of them cause a great Accension and Heat in the Blood (as we see Fewel burns rashly in such Weather) and so enable it to resist the Impressions of the Cold for so short a time as its more nimble Circulation exposes it thereto, before it comes to another Heating. From hence may an Account be given, why the Inhabitants of hot Countries may endure longer Fasting and Hunger, than those of colder; and those seemingly prodigious, and to us scarce credible, Stories of the Fastings and Abstinence of the Egyptian Monks be renderd probable.
2. Other Animals, which are of a colder Temper, and made to endure a long Inedia or Fasting, and to lie in their Holes almost torpid all Winter, as all Kinds of Serpents and Lizards have indeed Lungs, but do not incessantly breathe, or when they have drawn in the Air, necessarily expire it again, but can retain it at their Pleasure, and live without Respiration whole Days together, as was long since experimented by Sir Thomas Brown, M.D. in a Frog tied by the Foot under Water for that Purpose by him. This Order of Creatures have but one Ventricle in their Heartss and the
whole Blood doth not so often circulate through the Lungs, as it doth through the rest of the Body. This manner of Breathing is sufficient to maintain in them that Degree of Heat which is suitable to their Nature and Manner of Living. For to our Touch they are always cold even in Summer-time, and therefore some will then put Snakes into their Bosom to cool them.
3. Fishes, which were to live and converse always in a cold Element, the Water, and therefore were to have a Temper not excelling in Heat, becaute otherwise the constant immediate Contract of the Water (unless some extraordinary Provision were made) could not have been supported by them, that they might not be nessitated continually to be coming up to the Top of the Water to draw in the Air, and for many other Reasons that might be alleged, perform their Respiration under Water by the Gills, by which they can receive no more Air than is dispersed in the Pores of the Water; which is sufficient to preserve their Bodies in that Temper of Heat that is suitable to their Nature, and the Place wherein they live. These also have but one Ventricle in their Hearts.
But now, though this be thus, the great and most wise God, as it were, purposely to demonstrate, that he is not by any Condition or Quality of Place necessarily determined to one Manner of Respiration, or one Temper of
Body in Fishes; he hath endued the Bodies of some of that Tribe of Aquatick Creatures wlth Lungs like viviparous Quadrupeds, and two Ventricles of the Heart, and an Ability of Breathing like them, by drawing in and letting out the open Air; so contriving their Bodies, as to maintain, in the midst of the cold Water, a Degree of Heat Answerable to that of the forementioned Quadrupeds.
Another remarkable thing relating to Respiration, is the keeping the Hole or Passage between the Arteria venoaa and Vena cava, called Foramen ovale, open in some amphibious Quadrupeds, viz. the Phoca or Vitulus marinus, called in the English, Sea-Calf and Seal; and, as is generally held, the Beaver too. We have already given the Reason of the twofold Communication of the great Blood-Vesels in the Foetus or Young, so long as it continues in the Womb: The one between the two Veins entring the Heart, by a Hole or Window; the other between the two Arteries, by an Arterial Chanel, extended from the Pulmonary Artery to the Aorta, or great Artery which was, in brief, to divert the Blood from the Lungs. The same Reason for keeping open this Floramen ovale, there is, in these amphibious Creatures; For, 1. The Lungs probably being not extended, but emptied of Air when they abide long under water, and flacid, it is not easy for the whole Blood every Circulation to make its way through them. 2. To maintain that Degree of Heat and Motion in
the Blood, as is sufficient for them while they are under Water, there is not so much Air required, as is when they are above: The Blood then moving but gently, as doth that of the Foetus in the Womb.
Farther, in reference to Respiration, it is observed by the Parisian Academists, that some amphibious Quadrupeds, particularly the Sea-Calf or Seal, hath his Epiglottis extraordinarily large in proportion to other Animals, it extending half an Inch in Length beyond the Glottis to cover it. I believe the Beazer hath the like Epiglottir, exactly clothing the Larynx or Glottis, and hindring all Influx of Water; because in one dissected by Wepferus, that suffocated itself in the Water, there was not a drop of Water found in the Lungs. It is probable (say they) that this is done more exactly to close the Entrance of the Aspera Arteria, or Wind-Pipe, when the Animal eats his Prey at the Bottom of the Sea, and to hinder the Water from running into his Lungs. An Elephant (as is observed by Dr. Moulins, I think, in the Anatomy of that Creature) hath no Epiglottis at all, there being no danger of any thing falling into their Lungs fron eating or drinking, seeing there is no Communication between the Oesophagus and it. For he thus describes the Oesophagus or Gullet: The Tongue of this Creature (saith he) had this peculiar in it, that the Passage to the Ventricle was through it; for there was a Hole near the
Root of it, and exaetly in the middle of that
Part; which Hole was the Beginning of the Oesophagus. There was no Communication between this and the Passage into the Lungs, contrary to what we may observe in Men, in all Quadrupeds and Fowl, that ever I had opportunity to dissect. For the Membrana pituitaria anterior reached to the very Root of the Tongue below the Oesophagus, and so quite stopped the Passage of the Air into the Mouth. But though there be no danger of Meat or Drink falling into the Lungs, yet were they not sufficiently secured from small Animals creeping in there: For though, to supply in some measure the Want of an Epiglottis by lessening the Glottis, there grew to the Outside of the Cartilages, called Arytenoides, another capable of Motion up and down, by the help of some Muscles that were implanted in it, strong on both sides of the aspera Arteria, but on the Under-side, opposite to that of the Oesophagus very limber, wanting about two Inches and a half of coming round the aforesaid Cartilages on the Upper-side, or the next to the Oesophagus. Yet did not this Cartilage so shut up the way against them, but that even a Mouse creeping up his Proboscis might get into his Lungs and so stifle him. Whence we may guess as the Reason, why the Elephant is afraid of a Mouse: And, therefore, to avoid this Danaer, this Creature [the Elephant, which this Author described] was observed always when he slept to keep his Trunk [Proboscis] so close to the Ground, that nothing but air could get in between
them. This is a strange Sagacity and Providence in this Animal, or else an admirable Instinct.
Again, The Parisian Academists observe of the Sea-Tortoise, that the Cleft of the Glottis was strait and close: Which exact Enclosure, I do rather believe, is to prevent the Water from entring into the Wind-Pipe, when the Tortoises are under Water, than to assist the Effect of the Compression of the Air in the Lungs as they would have it. For they make the main Reason of Respiration, and Use of the Lungs in this Creature, to be, to take in and retain Air; by the Compression and Dilatation whereof, made by the Muscles, it can raise or sink itself in the Water, as need requires; though I do not exclude this. But if this be the main Use of the Lungs and Respiration in this Animal, what is it in Land-Animals, which have a like Conformation of Lungs, and Manner of Respiration, as the Camelion, Serpents, and Lizards ?
But before I dismiss the Tortoise, I shall add two notable Observations concerning him, borrowed of the said French Academists, which seem to argue something of Reason in him, and more than a bare Instinct. The first is in the Land-Tortoise; and it is his manner of turning himself, and getting upon his Feet again when he is cast upon his Back, which they describe in these Words: At the great Aperture of the Shell before, there was at the Top a raised Border, to grant more liberty to the Neck
and Head, for lifting themselves upwards. And this Inflexion of the Neck is of great Use to the Tortoises. For it serves them to turn again, when they are upon their Backs. And their Industry upon this Account is very admirable. We have observed in a living Tortoise, that being turned upon its Back, and not being able to make use of its Paws for the returning of itself, because they could not only bend towards the Belly, it could help itself only by its Neck and Head, which is turned sometimes on one side, sometimes on the other, by pushing against the Gtound, to rock itself as in a Cradle, to find out the side towards which the Inequality of the Ground might more easily permit it to rowl its Shell. For when it had found it, it made all its Endeavours on that Side.
The Second is in the Sea-Tortoise as follows: Aristotle and Pliny have remarked, that when Tortoises have been a long time upon the Water during a Calm, it happens that their Shell being dried in the Sun, they are easily taken by the Fishermen; by Reason they cannot plunge into the Water nimbly enough, being become too light. This shews what Equality there ought to be in their Aequilibrium, seeing so little a Change as this, which may happen by the sole Drying of the Shell, is capable of making it useless. This easiness to be taken at such a time, these Academists do not referr meerly to the Lightness of this Creatures Body, (for he could easily let Air enough out of his Lungs to render it heavier than the Water,
and so enable himself to sink) but to a wonderful Sagacity and Caution of this Animal. For (say they) it is probable that the Tortoise, which is always carefu1 to keep himself in this AEquilibrium, so as other Animals are to keep themselves on their Legs, in this case, by the same Instinct, dares not let the Air out of his Lungs, to acquire a Weight which might make him speedily to sink; because he fears that his Shell being wet, it should become so heavy, that he being sunk to the bottom of the Water might never have Power afterwards to re-ascend. If this may be the Reason why he exposes himself to the Danger of being taken at such a time, rather than he will descend suddenly to the bottom, it is clear, that he is endued with an admirable Providence and Foresight, and a Power of Augmentation.
That Nature doth really Design the Preservation and Security of the more infirm Creatures, by the defensive Armor that it hath given to some of them, together with Skill to use it, is, I think, demonstrable in the common Hedge-hog or Urchin, and one Species of Tatou or Armadillo. The Hedge-hog hath his Back-sides and Flanks thick set with strong and sharp Prickles, and besides, by the help of a Muscle, given him for that purpose, is enabled to contract himself into a Globular Figure, and so to withdraw, enclose and hide his whole Under-Part, Head, Belly, and Legs, which, for the Necessities and Conveniencies of Life, must be left destitute of this Armor) within his
Covert or Thicket of Prickles; so that Dogs, or other rapacious Creatures, cannot lay hold upon him, or bite him, without wounding their own Noses and Mouths. The Muscle, whereby he is enabled to draw himself thus together, and gather up his whole Body like a Ball, the Parisian Acadcmists describe to be a distinct Carnose Muscle, extended from the Ossa innominata to the Ear and Nose, running along the Back-bone, without being fastened thereto. Olaus Borrichius, in the Danick Transactions, makes it to be an almost circular Muscle, embracing the Panniculus carnosus) of a wonderful Fabrick, variously extending its Laciniae or Processes to the Feet, Tail, and Head of the Creature.
The other Creature, which doth thus contract and draw up itself into a Globular or Oval Figure for its Defence, is the second sort of Tatou or Armadillo, largely described by Marcgrave, lib. 6. cap. 9. by the Name of Tatu apara, which is covered on its Back and Sides with a strong scaly Crust or Shell, of a hard or bony Substance, jointed like Armor, or the Scales of the Tale of a Lobster, by four transverse Commissures in the middle of the Body, connected by tough Membranes. When it sleeps, (as it doth for the most part in the Day-time, going forth to feed in the Night) or when one goes about to lay hold on it, gathering up its fore and hind Legs as it were to one Point, and drawing its Ears with its Head inward, and bringing its Tail to its Head, by Reason of the fore-mentioned Commissures,
it bends its Back so far, till its Head comes to touch its hind Part, and so with Armor gathers itself into a round Ball, the lateral Extremities of the Shell touching one another, and enclosing the Body on the Sides, and the fore and hind Parts coming so near together; that there is nothing to be seen, but the Armature of the Head and Tail, which, like Doors, shut up the Hole, which the Shells of the Body left open. This it performs by the Action of a notable Muscle on each Side, of a great Length, having the Form of the Letter X, made up of many Fibres, decussating one another long ways; by the help whereof, it can contract its Shell, and hold it contracted with such a mighty Force, that he must be a Srong Man indeed that is able to open it.
Had such a Muscle as this, and such an Ability of Contraction been given to any Creature that was covered with soft Hair or Fur, there might have been some Pretence to fancy, that this was accidental and not designed : But seeing there is not one Instance of this Kind in Nature, it must be great Stupidity to believe it, an Impudence to assert it. Neither will the Atheists usual <greek>krEsphugatov</greek>, or Refuge, That there were indeed at first such Creatures producd; but being obnoxious to those that were strong, and rapacious, they were by degrees destroyed, and the Race lost, here help them out: because such a Muscle and Faculty of using it to that Purpose, might as likely have fallen to the Lot or Chance of a strong and generous
Creature, which others dared not approach to hurt, who might, for his own Disport, have thus contracted himself into a Ball, of which Kind we find none.
I have before nnentioned the Use assigned by the Honourable Mr. Boyle, of famous Memory, lately deceasd, to the Periophthalmium, or nectating Membrane in Brutes, wherein I could not fully acqusesce as to some Quadrupeds, which were in no danger of having their Eyes harmed by Bushes, and Prickles, or Twigs of Trees; since the Writing whereof, I have met with a different Account of the Use of that Membrane, in the Anatomical Description of several Creatures dissected by the Royal Academy of Sciences at Paris, Englished by Mr. Alexander Pitfield, p.249 in the Description of the Cassowar. Our Opinion (say those Academists) is, that the Membrane serves to clean the Cornea, and to hinder, that by drying, it grow no less transparent. ; Man and the Ape, which are the sole Animals wherein we have not found this Eye-lid, have not wanted this Provision for the cleaning of their Eyes, because that they have Hands, wtth which they may, by rubbing their Eye-lids, express the Humidity which they contain, and which they let out thro the ductus lachrymalis which is known by Experience, when the Sight is darkned, or when the Eyes suffer any Pain or Itching : For these Accidents do cease, when the Eyes are rubbed.
But the Direction has distinctly discovered to us the Organs which do particularly serve
for this Use, and which are otherwise in Birds, than in Man, where the Ductus passes not beyond the Glandula lachrymalis. For in Birds it goes beyond; and penetrating above half way on the internal Eye-lid, it is opened underneath upon the Eye: Which is evidently done to spread a Liquor over the whole Cornea, when this Eye-lid passes and repasses; as we observd it to do every moment.
The Artifice and Contrivance of Nature, for the extending and withdrawing of this Curtain of the Periophthalmium in Birds, is admirable; but it is difficult so to express it in Words, as to render it intelligible to the Reader; for a multitude of Words doth rather obscure than illustrate, they being a Burden to the Memory, and the first apt to be forgotten, before we come to the last. So that he that uses many Words for the explaining any Subject, doth, like the Cuttle-Fish, hide himself; for the most part, in his own Ink. And in the Description of the Figure, and Manner of the Extension and Contraction of this Membrane, the Parisian Academists are constrained to use so many Words, that I am afraid few Readers Patience and Attention will last so long, as to comprehend and carry it away: Yet because it is so evident and irrefragable a Proof of Wisdom and Design, I could not omit it. Their Words are these, The Particularities of the admirable Structure of this Eye-lid, are such things as do distinctly discover the Wisdom of Nature, among a thousand others, of which we perceive
not the Contrivance, because we understand them only by the Effects, of which we know not the Causes; but we here treat of a Machine, all the Parts whereof are visible, and which need only to be lookd upon, to discover the Reason of its Motion and Action.
This Internal Eye-lid in Birds is a Membranous Part, which is extended over the Cornea, when it is drawn upon it like a Curtain, by a little Cord or Tendon; and which is drawn back again into the great Corner of the Eye, to uncover the Cornea, by the Means of the very strong Ligaments that it has, and which, in drawing it back towards its Origine, do fold it up. It made a Triangle when extended, and it had the Figure of a Crescent when folded up. Its Basis which is its Origine) was toward the great Corner of the Eye, at the Edge of the great Circle, which the Sclerotica forms when it is flatted before, making an Angle with its anterior Part, that is, the Cornea) which is raised like a Hill upon it. The Basis, which is the Part immoveable, and fastned to the Edge of the Sclerotica, did take up more than a third Part of the Circumference of the great Circle of the Sclerotica: The side of the Triangle, which is toward the little Corner of the Eye, and is moveable, was reinforced with a Border, which supplies the place of the Tarsus, and which is black in most Quadrupeds. This side of the Eye-lid is that which is drawn back into the Corner of the Eye, by the Action of the Fibres of the whole Eye-lid, which parting from
its Origine, proceed to join themselves to its Tarsus.
To extend this Eye-lid over the Cornea, there were two Muscles that were seen, when six were taken away, which servd to the Motion of the whole Eye. We found that the greatest of these two Muscles has its Origine at the very Edge of the great Circle of the Sclerotica, towards the great Corner, from whence the Eye-lid takes irs Original. It is very fleshly in its Beginning, which is a large Basis, from whence coming insensibly to contract itself by passing under the Globe of the Eye, like as the Eye-lid passes over it, it approaches the Optick Nerve, where it produces a Tendon round and slender, so that it passes through the Tendon of the other Muscle, which serves for a Pully, and which hinders it from pressing the Optick Nerve upon which it is bent, and makes an Angle, to pass through it to the upper Part of the Eye; and coming out from underneath the Eye to insert itself at the Corner of the Membrane, which makes the Internal Eye-lid. This second Muscle hath its Original at the same Circle of the Sclerotica, but opposite to the first towards the little Corner of the Eye, and passing under the Eye like the other, goes to meet it, and embraces its Tendon, as has been declared.
The Action of these two Muscles is, in respect to the first, to draw by the means of its Cord or Tendon the Corner of the Internal Eye-lid, and to extend it over the Cornea. As
to the second Muscle, its Acrion is by making its Tendon to approach towards its Origine, to hinder the Cord of the first Muscle which it embraces, from hurting the Optick Nerve; but its principal Use is, to assist the Action of the first Muscle. And tis herein that the Mechanism is marvellous in this Structure, which makes that these two Muscles joined together, do draw much farther than if it had but one for the Inflection of the Cord of the first Muscle, which causes it to make an Angle on the Optick Nerve, is made only for this End: And a single Muscle with a strait Tendon, had been sufficient, if it had Power to draw far enough. But the Traction which must make the Eyelid extend over the whole Cornea, being necessarily great, it could not be done but by a very long Muscle, and such a Muscle not being able to be lodgd in the Eye all its Length, there was no better Way to supply the Action of a long Muscle, than by that of two indifferent ones, and by bending one of them, to give it the greater Length in a little Space. Thus far the Academists, who themselves reflecting on the Length and Obscurity of this Description, tell us, that the Inspection of the Figure, wil1 serve greatly to the Understanding of it, which the Novelty of the Thing renders obscure in itself; and so I fear it will be to most Readers; howbeit in such a Work as this, I ought not by any means, as I said before, to leave out such a notable Instance,
wherein Contrivance and Design do so clearly and undeniably appear.
The same Academists, as I remember, tell us, that they have found by Experience, that the aqueous Humour of the Eye will not freeze; which is very admirable, seeing it hath the Perspicuity and Fluidity of common Water, and hath not been taken Notice of; so far as I have heard, to have any eminent Quality discoverable, either by Taste or Smell; so that it must be of some Singular and Ethereal Nature: And deserves to be examined and annalized by the curious Naturalists of our Times.
The Providence of Nature is wonderful in a Camel, or Dromedary, both in the Structure of his Body, and in the Provision that is made for the Sustenance of it. Concerning the first, I shall instance only in the Make of his Foot, the Sole whereof, as the Parisian Academists do observe, is flat and broad, being very fleshy, and covered only with a thick, soft, and somewhat callous Skin, but very fit and proper to travel in sandy Places; such as are the Desarts of Africk and Asia. We thought (say they) that this Skin was like a living Sole, which wore not with the Swiftness and the Continuance of the March, for which this Animal is almost indefatigable. And it may be this softness of the Foot, which yields and fits itself to the Ruggedness and Uneavenness of the Roads, does render the Feet less capable of being worn, than if they were more solid.
As to the Second, the Provision that is made for their Sustenance in their continued Travels over sandy Desarts, the same Academists observe, That at the Top of the second Ventricle (for they are ruminant Creatures, and have four Stomachs) there were several square Holes, which were the Orifices of about twenty Cavities, made like Sacks placed between the two Membranes, which do compose the Substance of this Ventricle. The View of these Sacks made us to think, that they might well be the Reservatories, where Pliny says, that Camels do a long time keep the Water, which they drink in great Abundance when they meet with it, to supply the Wants which they may have thereof in the dry Desarts, wherein they are used to travel; and where it is said, that those that do guide them, are sometimes forced, by Extremity of Thirst, to open their Bellies, in which they do find Water.
That such an Animal as this, so patient of long thirst, should be bred in such droughty and parched Countries, where it is of such eminent Use for travelling over those dry and sandy Desarts, where no Water is to be had sometimes in two or three Days Journey, no candid and considerable Person but must needs acknowledge to be an Effect of Providence and Design.
Such Animals as feed naturally upon Flesh, both Quadrupeds and Birds, because such kind of Food is high and rank, do qualify it, the one by swallowing the Hair or Fur of the
Beasts they prey upon, the other by devouring some Part of the Feathers of the Birds they gorge themselves with, not electively, but because they cannot, or will not, take the Pains fully to plume them. And therefore the Parisian Academists do rationally refer the Death of one cf the Lions whom they dissected to the Feeding of him with too succulent and delicate Meat. For (say they) we know, that some time before his Death he was several Months without going out of his Den and that it was hard to make him eat. That for this Reason some Remedies were prescribed to him, and among others the eating only the Flesh of young Animals, and those alive. And that those which lookd to the Bears of the Park of Vicennes, to make this Food more delicate, did use a Method very extraordinary; which was, they flead Lambs alive, and thus made him eat several; which at the first revived him, creating in him an Appetite, and making him brisk. But it is probable that this Food engenderd too much Blood, and which was too subtile for an Animal to whom Nature had not given the Industry of fleaing those which he eat. It being credible, that the Hair, Wool, Feathers and Scales, which all Animals of Prey do swallow, are a reasonable and necessary corrective, to prevent their Greediness from filling themselves with too succulent a Food.
Though I have declared in the Beginning of this Work, that the Means whereby cartilaginous
Fishes raise and sink themselves in the Water, and rest and abide in what Depth they Please, is not yet certainly known; yet I shall propound a Conjectcure concerning it, which was first suggested to me by Mr. Peter Dent, late Physician in Cambridge, viz. that it is by the help of Water which they take in and let out by two Holes in the lower Part of their Abdomen, or Belly, near the Vent) or not far off it. The Flesh of this sort of Fish being lax and spungey, and nothing so firm, solid and weighty, as that of the Bony Fishes; and there being a good Quantity of Air contained in the Cavity of their Abdomen, they cannot sink in the Water, without letting in some of it by these Holes (the Orifices whereof are opened and shut at Pleasure by the help of Muscles provided for that purpose) into the Hollow of their Bellies, whereby they preponderate the Water; and descend; and when they would ascend by a Compression wrought by the Muscles of the Abdomen they force out the Water again, or at least so much of it as may suffice to give that Degree of Levity they need or desire. If it be found, by Experience, that the Bodies of these Fishes, without this Ballast would naturally float in the Water, and that they do really admit Water into their Bellies, then this Conjecture may have some Probability or Truth in it, otherwise not.
Upon the Contemplation and Consideration of those various Ways and Contrivances which Nature (I mean the Divine Wisdom) hath
made use of for preparing the Chyle, separating the nutritious Juice from the grosser Parts of the Aliment, and the several Humours and Spirits from the Blood, I cannot but admire her great Wisdom, Art and Curiosity. For she hath not only employed all those Methods and Devices, which Chymists have either learned by Imitation of her, or invented of themselves, for annalizing of Bodies, separating their Parts, the pure from the impure, and extracting their Spirits, etc. as Maceration in the first Stomach or Paunch of ruminating Creatures, and in the Craws of Birds ; Comminution by grinding in the Mouths of viviparous Quadrupeds, and in the Gizzards of Poultry; Fermentation in the Stomachs of most Terrestrial, and all Aquatick Animals ; Expression and Squeezing, in the Omasus of ruminant Quadrupeds, and in the Intestines of all Creatures, by the Motion of the Midriff, and other Muscles of the Belly, forcing the Chyle out of the Faeces, or Excrements, into the Lacteal Veins; Straining, or Percolation, by all the Viscera of the Body; which use but as so many Colanders to separate several Juices from the Blood: And, lastly, Digestion and Circulation, in the Spermatick Parts and Vessels, and perhaps also in the Brain. I say, it hath not only made use of these Operations, but it hath quite out-done the Chymists, effecting that by a gentle Heat, which they cannot perform without great Stress of Fire. As for Instance, in the Stomach of a Dog, preparing a Liquor
that dissolves Bones; and in the Bodies of some Insects, a Liquor which seems to be as highly acid and corrosive, as Oil of Vitriol, or Spirit of Nitre, viz. that which is instilled into the Blood when they sting. It is an Experiment I have met with in some Books, and made myself, that if you put Blue-Bottles or other blue Flowers into an Ant-Hill, they will presently be stained with red : The Reason which these Authors render not) is because the Ants thrust in their Stings into the Flowers, and instil into or drop upon them a small Mite of their stinging Liquor, which hath the same Effect that Oil of Vitriol would have in changing their Colour, which is a Sign that both Liquors are of the same Nature.
Casper Bartholine hath observed, that where the Gullet perforates the Midriff, the carneous Fibres of that muscular Part are inflected and arcuate, as it were a Sphincter embracing and closing it fast, by a great Providence of Nature, lest in the perpetual Motion of the Diaphragm, the upper Orifice of the Stomach should gape, and cast out the Victuals as fast as it received it. And Peyesus thinks he hath Observed, that in ruminating Creatures the Connection of the Gullet with the Diaphragm is far straiter and stronger than in Man and other Animals, to the end that there should not be more than one Morsel forced out at once. For that external Sphincter inhibits a too great Dilatation of the Gullet, and doth as it were
measure out the Morsels, and fit them to the Capacity of the Oesophagus.
I shall conclude with a notable Relation of Galens, lib. 6. de locis effectis, cap. 6. concerning a Kid taken by him alive out of the Dams Belly, and nourished and brought up.
H diaplasasa te kai teleiOsasa phusis eirgasato chOris didaskalias epi oikeian energeian erchesthai; kai basanon ge tQtQ megizEn epoiEsamEn pote threpsas epiphon, aneu tQ Theasasthai pote tEn kuEsasan; aigas gar egEumonas anatemOn heneka tOn ezEtEmenOn theOrEmatOn tois anatomikois andrasi peri tEs kata to kuQmenon oikonomias, heurOn pote gennaion to embruon, apelusa men tEs mEtras hOsper eiOthamen; harpasas de prin theasasthai tEn kuEsasan eis oikon men tina komisas katethEka, pollamen echonta lekania; to men oivQ, to de elaiQ, to de melitos, to de galaktos, E allQ tinos hugrQ plEres, ouk oliga dalla tOn DEmEtriOn karpOn, hOsper de kai tOn akrodruOn; etheasametha de to embruon ekeino, prOton men badizon tois posin, hOsper akEkoOs heneka badiseOs echein ta skelE; deuteron de aposeiomenon tEn ek tEs mEtras hugrotEta, kai triton epi tQtO kusamenon heni tOn podOn tEn pleuran, eit osmOmenon eidomen auto tOn keimenOn kata ton oikon hekazQ, hOs de pantOn Osmato tQ galaktos aperophEsen, en hO kai anekragamen hapantes, enargOs horOntes hoper hIppokratEs ephE, phuseis zOOn adidaktoi. Kai toinun kai anethrepsamEn ekeino to eriphion, eidomen te prospheromenon huzeron Q to gala monon, alla kai alla tina tOn keimenOn; ontos de tQ kairQ kath hon exErethE tEs metros ho eriphos, eggus tEs eiarinEs hisEmerias, meta duo tQ mEnas eisekomisamEn autO malakQs akremonas thamnOn te kai phutOn, hOn palin kai autOn
osmEsamenon hapantOn, enion men eutheOs apezE, tinOn de ExiOse geusasthai, kai geusa eniOn epi tEn edOdEn etrapeto tOn kai tais megalais aixi sunEthOn edesmatOn. Alla tQto men isOs mikron; ekeino de mega. Ta gar phulla kai tQs malakQs akremonas apophagOn katepien, eit oligou huzeron epi to mErukazein hEken, ho palin theasamenoi pantes aneboEsan ekplagnetes epi tais tOn zOOn dunamesi; mega men gar E kai to peinEsan dia te tQ somatos kai tOn odontOn prospheresthai tEn edOdEn; all hote to katapothen eis tEn gazera prOton men anapherein eis to soma prosEken, epeita leainein en autO massOmenon en chronO pollO, kai meta tauta katapinein mEketi eis tEn autEn koilian, all eis heteran, hikanOs hEmin ephaineto thaumasion einai; PararOsi de polloi ta toiauta tEs phuseOs erga, mona ta xena theamata thaumazontes.
Nature forming, fashioning and perfecting the Parts of the Body; hath so brought it to pass, that they would of themselves, without any teaching, set about and perform their proper Actions: And of this I once made a great Experimcnt, bringing up a Kid without ever seeing its Dam. For dissecting some Goats great with Young, to resolve some Questions mnde by Anatomists, concerning the Oeconomy of Nature in the Formation of the Foetus in the Womb; and finding a brisk Embryon, [young one] I loosed it from the Matrix after our usual manner, and snatching it away, before it saw its Dam, I brought it into a certain Room; having many Vessels full, some of Wine, some of Oil, some of
Honey, some of Milk, or some other Liquor; and others, not a few, filled with all forts of Grain, as also with several Fruits, and there laid it. This Embryon we saw first of all getting up on its Feet and walking, as if it had heard, that its Legs were given it for that purpose; next Shaking of the Slime it was besmeared with from the Womb; and moreover, thirdly, scratching its Side with one of his Feet; then we saw it smelling to every one of those Things that were put in the Room; and when it had smelt to them all, it supped up the Milk; whereupon we all for Admiration cried out, seeing clearly the Truth of what Hypocrates saith, that the Natures and Actions of Animals are not taught, (but by Instinct). Hereupon I nourished and reared this Kid, and observed it afterwards not only to eat Milk, but some other things that stood by it. And the Time when this Kid was taken out of the Womb being about the Vernal Equinox, after some two Months were brought into it the tender Sprouts of Shrubs and Plants, and it again smelling of all of them, instantly refused some, but was Pleased to taste others, and after it had tasted, began to eat of such are are the usual Food of Goats. Perchance this may seem a small thing, but what I shall now relate is great. For eating the Leaves and tender Sprouts, it swallowed them down, and then a whilc after it began to chew the Cud; which all that saw cried out again with Admiration, being astonished at the Instincts and natural Faculties of Animals.
For it was a great thing that when the Creature was hungry, it should take in the Food by the Mouth, and chew it with its Teeth; but that it should bring up again into the Mouth that which it had swallowed down into its Stomach; and chewing it there a long time, it should grind and smooth it, afterwards swallow it again, not into the same Stomach, but into another, seemed to us wonderful indeed. But many neglect such Works of Nature, admiring only strange and unusual Sights." So far Galen.
This pleasant and admirable Story, should one consider all the Particulars of it; and endeavour to give an Account of them, as also all the Inserences that might be drawn from it, one might fill a whole Volume with Comments upon it. All that I shall at present say is this, That in all this Oeconomy, and these Actions, Counsel and Design doth so clearly appear, that he must needs be very stupid that doth not discem it, or impudent, that can deny it. I might add, That there seems to be something more than can be performed by meer Mechanism in the Election this Creature made of its Food: For before it would eat of any, it smelt to all the Liquors before it, and when it had done so, betook itself to the Milk, and devoured that. He doth not say that the Milk was the last Liquor it smelt to, or that when it had once smelt to that, it presently drank it up. The like also he saith of
all the Sprouts and Branches of Plants that were laid before it. By the by, we may take Notice of one thing very remarkable, that this Kid of its own Accord drank Milk, after the manner it had done in the womb; whereas had it once drawn by the Nipple, it would hardly have sippd the Milk. And therefore in weaning young Creatures, the best Way is never to let them suck the Paps at all, for then they will drink up Milk without any Difficulty; whereas, if they have Suckd, some will very hardly, others, by no means, be brought, to drink. But how do the Young with such Facility come to take the Nipple, and to suck at it, which they had never before used to do? Here we must have Recourse to Natural Instinct, and the Direction of some Superiour Cause.
Notice hath been already taken in an 0bservation communicated by my Learned Friend Dr. Tancred Robinpon, of the Providence of Nature in so forming the Membranes of the Body, as to be capable of a prodigious Dilatation and Extension; which is of great Use in some Diseases; for Example, the Dropsy, to continue Life for some time, till Remedy may be had; and if not, to give Time to prepare for Death. But the Wisdom and Design of this Texture doth in no Instance more clearly appear, than in the Necessity of it for the Womb in the Time of Gestation. For were not the Womb in Women, which, during Virginity, is not bigger than a small Purse,
almost infinitely Dilatable, and also the Peritoneum, not to mention the Skin, and the Cuticula; how were it possible it should contain the Child, nay sometimes Twins, with all their Appurtenances, the Secundines, the Placenta, the Liquor or Waters, and what else is necessary for the Defence, Nutrition, Respiration, and soft and convenient Lodging of them, till they come to their due Perfeetion and Maturity for Exclusion? How could the Child have room to grow there to his Bigness, and stir and turn himself as is requisite ? Add hereto another Observation of Blasiuss, particularly relating to this Subject: He hath observed, that the Vessels of the interiou glandulous Substance of the Womb are strangely contorted and reflected with Turnings and Meanders, that they might not be too much strained, but their Folds being extended and abolished, they might accommodate themselves without Danger of Rupture to the necessary Extension of the Uterine Substance at that Time.
Another remarkable Proof of Council, and Design may be fetchd from the Formation of the veins and arteries near the heart, which I meet with in Dr. Lowers Treatise De Corde. Just before the Entrance of the Right Auricle of the heart, (saith he) to wit, where the ascending Trunk of the Vena Cava meeting with the descending, is ready to empty itself into the said right auricle, there occurrs in it a very remarkable Knob or Bunch [Tuberculum] raised up from the subjacent Fat, by the Interposition
whereof the Blood falling down by the dessending Vein, is diverted into the Auricle, which otherwise encountring and bearing upon that of the ascendent Trunk, would very much hinder and retard the Motion of it upward towards the Heart: And because in an erect Site and Figure of the Body there is a greater and more eminent Danger of such an Accident, therefore the Vena Cava in Mankind hath this Tubercle far greater, and more extant than it is in Brutes, so that if you thrust your finger into either Trunk, you can hardly find Passage or Admittance into the other.
But in Quadrupeds, as in Sheep, Dogs, Horse, Kine, in which the Course of the Blood from either Extreme of the Body is more equal, and, as it were, in a plainer Level, and because the Heart, by Reason of its Bulk and Weight, hanging downwards, both Trunks of the Vena Cava have some little Declivity towards it, there is no need of so great a Bar and Diversion in them; yet are they not altogether devoid of it.
Moreover, lest the Blood here in its Conflux should make a Kind of Flood and Whirlpool, whilst the Auricle being contracted doth not give it free Ingress, therefore, in this place, the Vena Cava in great Animals, as well Man as Quadrupeds, is round-about Musculous; as well that it may be restraind and kept within its due Limits of Extension, as that it may more vigorously, and strongly urge and impel the Blood into the Cavity of the Auricle.
Besides, there is no less Providence and Caution used, that the Blood, when it is forcibly cast out of the Left Ventricle of the Heart, be not unequally distributed to the superior or inseriour Parts. For whereas this Gate or Orifice of the Heart opens right upwards, if that Channel, which receives the first Impulse of the Blood, did lead in a strait Line up to the Region of the Head, it could not be, but that it must be poured too swiftly upon the Brain, and so the inseriour Parts of the Body must needs be defrauded of their vital Liquor and Aliment. Which Inconvenience, that the divine Architect of the Body might wholly obviate and avoid, in Animals whose Hearts are more strongly moved; he so artificially contrived the Trunk of the Aorta, which is next the Heart, that the Blood runs not directly into the Axillary and Carotide Arteries, but doth as it were fetch a Compass: For in the middle Space between the Ventricle and those Arteries, it is very much inflected or bent; whence it comes to pass, that that crooked Angle sustains the Force and first Stroke of the ejected Blood, and directs the greatest Torrent of it towards the descending Trunk of the Aorta, which otherwise would rush too forcibly into the superiour Branches thereof, distending them immoderately, and soon oppress and burden the Head. so gar Dr. Lowther.
To elude or evade the Force of all these Instances, and innumerable others, which might be produced, to demonstrate, that the Bodies
of Men and all other Animals were the Effects of the Wisdom and Power of an intelligent and almighty Agent, and the Several Parts and Members of them designed to the Uses to which now they serve, the Atheist hath one Subterfuge, in which he most consides, viz. That all these Uses of Parts are no more than what is necessary to the very Existence of the Things to whom they belong: And what Things made Uses, and not Uses Things.
<latin>Nil ideo natum est in corpore ut uti Possemus, sed quod natum est id procreat usum.</latin> Saith Lucretius, Lib. 4.
And having Instanced in several Members, he concludes,
<latin>Omnia denique membra Ante fuere, ut opinor, eorum quam fuit usus.</latin>
I shall give you their Sense, together with the Confutation of it in Dr. Bentleys Words, borrowed out of his Fifth Lecrure, &c.
"These Things (say the Atheists) are mistaken for Tokens of Skill and Contrivance, whereas they are but necessary Consequences of the present existence of those Creatures to which they belong: For he that supposeth any Animals to subsist, doth, by that very Supposition, allow them every Member and Faculty that are necessary to
Subsistence. And, therefore, unless we can prove a priori, and independent on this Usefulness, now that Things are once supposed to have existed and propagated; that among almost infinite Trials and Essays at the Beginning of Things, among Millions of monstrous Shapes and imperfect Formations, a few such Animals as now exist could not possibly be produced, these After-Considerations are of very little Moment: because, if such Animals could in that way possibly be formed, as might live, and move, and propagate their Beings, all this admired and applauded Usefulness of their several Fabricks is but a necessary Condition and Consequence of their Existence and Propagation.
This is the last Pretence and Sophistry of the Atheists against the Proposition in my Text, [Acts xvii 27] That we received our Life and Being from a Divine Wisdom and Power. And as they cannot justly accuse me of concealing or baulking their Grand Objection, so, I beiieve, these following Considerations will give them no Reason to boast that it cannot receive a just and satisfactory Answer.
(1.) First, therefore, we affirm that we can prove, and have done it already by Arguments a priori, which is the Challenge of the Atheists) that these Animals that now exist, could not possibly have been formed at first by Millions of Trials. For seeing they allow by their very Hypothessis, ( and without standing to that Courtesy, we have proved it before) that there
can be no casual or spontaneous Motion of the Particles of Matter; it will follow, that every single Monster, among so many supposed Myriads, must have been mechanically and necessarily formed, according to the known Laws of Motion, and the Temperament and Quality of the Matter it was made of. Which is sufficient, that no such Monsters were or could have been formed. For to denominate them even Monsters, they must have had some rude Kind of Organical Bodies, some Stamina of Life, though never so clumsy, some system of Parts, compounded of solids and Liquids, that executed (though but bunglingly) their peculiar Motions and Functions. But we have lately shewn it impossible for Nature, unassisted, to constitute such Bodies, whose Structure is against the Law of specifick Gravity. So that she could not make the least Endeavour towards the producing of a Monster, or of any thing that hath more Vital and Organical Parts than we find in a Rock of Marble, or a Fountain of Water. And again, though we should not contend with them about their Monsters and Abortions, yet seeing that they suppose, even the perfect Animals, that are still in Being, to have been formed mechanically among the rest, and only add some Millions of Monsters to the Reckoning. They are liable to all the Difficulties in the former Explication, and are expressly refuted through the whole preceding Sermon, where it is abundantly shewn, that a spontaneous Production is against the
Catholick Laws of Motion, and against Matter of Fact, a Thing without Example, not only in Man and the nobler Animals, but in the Smallest of Insects, and the Vilest of Weeds: Though the Fertility of the Earth cannot be said to have been impaired since the Beginning of the World.
(2.) Secondly, We may observe, that this Evasion of the Atheist is fitted only to elude such Arguments of divine Wisdom as are taken from Things necessary to the Conservation of the Animal, as the Faculties of Sight, and Motion, and Nutrition, and the like; because such usefulness is indeed included in a general Supposition of the Existence of that Animal, but it miserably fails him against other Reasons, from such Members and Powers of the Body as are not necessary absolutely to Living and Propagating, but only much conduce to our better Subsistence and happier Condition. So the most obvious Contemplation of the Frame of our Bodies, as that we all have double Sensories, two Eyes, two Ears, two Nostrils, is an effectual Confutation of this Atheistical Sophism. For a double Organ of these Senses is not at all comprehended in the Notion of bare Existence ; one of them being sufficient to have preserved Life, and continued the Species, as common Experience witnesseth. Nay, even the very Nails of our Fingers are an infallible Token of Design and Contrivance; for they are useful and convenient to give Strength and Firmness to those Parts in the various Functions
they are put to; and to defend the numerous Nerves and Tendons that are under them, which have a most exquisite Sense of Pain, and without that native Armour would continually be exposed to it. It is manifest, therefore, that there was a Contrivance and Foresight of the Usefulness of Nails, antecedent to their Formation.
For the old stale Pretence of the Atheists, that Things were first made fortuitously, and afterwards their Usefulness was observed or discovered, can have no Place here; unless Nails were either absolutely requisite to the Existence of Mankind, or were found only in some Individuals, or some Nations of Men, and so might be ascribed to Necessity upon one Account, or to Fortune upon another. But from the Atheists Supposition, that among the infinite Diversity of the first Terrestrial Productions, there were Animals of all imaginable Shapes and Structrures of Body, all of which survived and multiplied, that by Reason of their Make and Fabrick could possibly do so, it necessarily follows, that we should now have some Nations without Nails upon their Fingers, others with one Eye only, as the Poets describe the Cyclopes in Sicily, and the Arimaspi in Scythia; others with one Ear, or with one Nostril, or indeed without any Organ of Smelling, because that Sense is not necessary to Mans Subsistence; others destitute of the Use of Language, seeing that Mutes also may live. One People would have the Feet of Goats, as the feigned Saytrs and Panisci:
Another would resemble the Head of Jupiter Ammon, or the horned Statues of Bacchus; the Scipodes and Enotocetae, and other monstrous Nations, would be no longer Fables, but real Instances in Nature: And, in a Word, all the ridiculous and extravagant Shapes the can be imagined, all the Fancies and Whimsies of Poets and Painters, and AEgyptian Idolaters, if so be they are consistent with Life and Propagation, would be now actually in being if our Atheists Notion were true: Which therefore may deservedly pass for a meer Dream and an Error, till they Please to make new discoveries in the Terra incognita, and bring along with them some Savages of all these fabulous and monstrous Configuratious. Thus far Dr. Bentley, who adds four Considerations more to confute this Fancy, ex abundanti, granting the Atheist all the absurd Suppositions he can make. For which, though they be very well worth the reading, yet being too long to transcribe, I refer the Reader to the Sermon itself.
I shall now farther prove by a notable Instance, that Uses made Things, that is to say, that some things were made designedly and on purpose for such an Use as they serve to; and that is, the Tendrels or Claspers of Plants, because they are given only to such Species as have weak and infirm Stalks, and cannot raise up, or support themselves by their own Strength. We see not so much as one Tree, or Shrub, or Herb, that hath a firm and strong Stem, and that is able to mount up and stand alone without
Assistance, furnished with them. Whereas, had they been, without Design, scattered ( as I may say ) indifferently and carelessy among Plants, it could not possibly have happened, but among so many thousand Spccies, they must have fallen to the Lot of some few, at least, some one of the Strong, and not only of the Weak. The same hath been proved by the Instance of the Power given to the Hedgebog and Armadillo, of contracting their Bodies into a globular Figure, and so hiding and securing their tender and unarmed Parts.
2. I shall prove by another eminent Instance, that Things did not make uses, because there is a sort of Creatures which have all the Parts and Organs which are fitted for a certain Action, and employed for the Exercise of it by another sort; and yet make no use of them for that Purpose: That is, the Ape-kind. The Parisian Academists, in their Anatomy of some Animals of this Kind, tell us, that the Muscles of the Os Hyoides, Tongue, Larynx, and Pharynx, which do most serve to articulate a Word, were wholly like to those of Man, and a great deal more than those of the Hand; which, nevertheress, the Ape, which speaks not, uses with as much Perfection as a Man. Which demonstrates, that Speech is an Action more peculiar to Man, and which more distinguishes him from Brutes, than the Hand, which Anaxagoras, Aristotle, and Galen, have thought to be the Organ, which Nature has given to Man, as to the wisest of all Animals;
for want perhaps of this Reflexion: For the Ape is found provided by Nature of all those marvellous Organs of Speech, with so much Exactness, that the very three small Muscles, which do take their Rise from the Apothesis Styloides, are not wanting, although this Apothesis be extremely small. This Particularity does likewise shew, that there is no Reason to think, that Agents do perform such and such Actions, because they are found with Organs proper thereunto : For, according to these Philosophers, Apes should speak, seeing that they have all the Instruments necessary for Speech. All this is confirmed and approved by the learned and accurate Dr. Tyson, in his Anatorny of the Orang Outrang, or Pigmy, he finding in the Animal he describd, which was of the Ape-kind) the whole Structure of the Larynx and Os Hyoides exactly as tis in Man. And the Reflexion which the Parisians make upon their Observation of these and the neighbouring Parts, he thinks very just and valuable and adds farther; that this is not the only Instance, which may justify such an Inserence, though he thinks it so strong an one, as the AtheiSts can never Answer.
It is farther considerable, and adds to the Weight of this Instance, that though Birds have been taught to imitate Humane Voice, and to pronounce Words, yea Sentences, yet Quadrupeds never; though they have Organs far more fit for that Purpose, and some of them, viz. Dogs, and Horses, converse almost perpetually
with Men; and others, as Apes, are given naturally to imitate Mens Actions; as if Providence had designed purposely to confute this fond Conceit of the Atheists, by denying them the Power to make use of these Organs of Speech, which, whether they understand what they said or not, they otherwise might and would have done in Imitation of Man, and that to greater Perfection than Birds do, or are capable of doing.
Farther, to prove that those nobler Faculties of the Soul, Reason, and Understanding, cannot be produced by Matter organized, but must have a higher Principle, he <margin>Dr. Tyson</margin> thus argues; "It is an Observation of Vesaliuss, that the Brain of Man, in respect of his Body, is much larger than what is to be met with in any other Animals, exceeding in Bigness three Oxes Brains; whence he insers, that as Animals excel in the Largeness of the Brain, so they do likewise in the principal Faculties of the soul; which Inserence the Doctor cannot allow.
It is (saith he) a generally received Opinion, that the Brain is the immediate Seat of the soul itself, whence one wrould be apt to think, that seeing there is so great a Disparity hetween the soul of a Man and a Brute, the Organ, in which it is placed, should be very different too; yet, by comparing the Brain of our Pigmy [the Orang-Outrang, or Wild-Man] with that of a Man, and with the greatest Exactness of observing each Part in both, it
was very surprizing to me to find so great a Resemblance of the one to the other, as nothing could be more; and that in Proportion to its Body, its Brain was also as large as a Mans.
Since therefore (he proceeds) the Brain of our Pigmy does in all respects so exactly resemble a Mans, I might here make the same reflexion the Parisians did upon the Organs of Speech, that there is no Reason to think, that Agents do perform such and such Actions, because they are found with Organs proper thereunto; for then our Pigmy might be really a Man. The Organs in Animal Bodies, are only a regular Compages of Pipes and Vessels for the Fluids to pass thro, and are passive. What actuates them, are the Humours and Fluids: And Animal Life consists in their due and regular Motion in this organical Body. But those nobler Faculties in the Mind of Man, must certainly havc a higher Principle, as Matter organized could never produce them: For why else, where the Organ is the same, should not the Action be the same too ?
Object. Some may here object and arg;ue, if the Body of Man be thus perfect, why did God make any othes Animals? For the most perfect Being the best, an infinitely good Agent, which wants neither Wisdom nor Power, should (one would think) only produce the most perfect.
Answer. To which I Answer, 1. That according to this Argumentation, one might inser that God must produce but one kind of Creature,
and that the most Perfect that he is able, which is impossible: For he being Infinite in all Perfection, cannot act <latin>ad extremum virium,</latin> unless he could produce an Infinite Creature, that is, another God, which is a Contradiction: But whatever he makes, must want Degrees of Infinite Perfection, of which he could sttill (if he pleased) add more and more to it.
2. The inseriour Creatures are perfect in their Order and Degree, wanting no Quality or Perfection that is necessary or due to their Nature and Condition, their Place and Manner of Living. Now, why God might not make several subordinate Ranks and Degrees of Creatures, they being good, I see no Reason.
3. These several Ranks and Degrees of Creatures are subservient one to another; and the most of them serviceable, and all, some way or other, useful to Man; so that he could not well have been without them.
4. God made these several Orders and Degrees, and in each Degree so many Varieties of Creatures, for the Manifestation and Displaying of his Infinite Power and Wisdom. For we have shewn before, by a familiar Instance, that there is more Art and Wisdom shewn in contriving and forming, a Multitude of different Kinds of Engines, than in one only.
5. Yet do I not think, that he made all these Creatures to no other End, but to be Serviceable to Man, but also to Partake themselves of his overflowing Goodness, and to enjoy their own
Beings. If we admit all other creatures in this inseriour World besides Man, to be meer Machines, or Automata, to have no Life, no Sense, or Perception of any Thing, then, I consess, this Reason is out of doors; for being uncapable of Pleasure or Pain, they can have no Enjoyment. Upon this account, also among others, I am less inclinable to that Opinion.
I should now proceed to Answer some Objections which might be made against the Wisdom and Goodness of God in the Contrivance and Governance of the World, and all Creatures therein contained. But that is too great and difficult a Task for my Weakness, and would take up more Time than I have at present to spare, were I qualified for it, and besides swell this Volume to too great a Bulk. Only I shall say something to one Particular, which was suggested to me by a Learned and Pious Friend <margin>Mr. Robert Burscough of Totness, in Devon</margin>.
Objection. A wise Agent acts for Ends. Now what End can there be of creating such a vast Multitude of Insects, as the World is filld with; most of which seems to be useless, and some also noxious and pernicious to Man, and other Creatures?
Answer. To this I shall answer,
1. As to the Multitude of species or Kinds.
2. As to the Number of Individuals in each Kind.
First, As to the Multitude of Species, which we must needs acknowledge to be exceeding great, they being not fewer, perchance
more, than 20000). I answer, there were so many made,
- To manifest and display the Riches of the Power and Wisdom of God, Psalm civ 24 "The Earth is full of thy Riches; so is this great and wide Sea, wherein are Things creeping innumerable, &c." We should be apt to think too meanly of those Attributes of our Creator should we ever be able to come to an End of all his Works, even in this Sublunary World. And therefore, I believe, never any Man yet did, never any Man shall, so long as the World endures, by his utmost Industry, attain to the Knowledge of all the Species of Nature. Hitherto we have been so far from it, that in Vegetables, the Number of those which have been discovered this last Age, hath far exceeded that of all those which were known before. So true is that we quoted before out of Seneca
<latin>Pusilla rer ejZ 1nundus, ni/i in eo qaod q~rat omlir, 7nundlls habeat. The World is so richly furnished and provided, that Man need not fear want of Employment, should he live to the Age of Methuselah, or ten times as long. But of this, having touched it already, I shall add no more.
2. Another reason why so many Kinds of Creatures were made, might be to exercise the contemplative Faculty of Man; which is in nothing so much pleasd, as in Variety of Objects. We soon grow weary of one Study; and if all the Objects of the World could be comprehended by us, we should, with Alexander,
think the World too little for us, and grow weary of running in a Round of seeing the same Things. New Objects afford us great Delight, especially if found out by our own Industry. I remember Clusius saith of himself, "That upon the Discovery of a new Plant, he did not less rejoice, than if he had found a rich Treasure." Thus God is pleased, by reserving Things to be found out by our Pains and Industry, to provide us Employment most delightful and agreeable to our Natures and Inclinations.
3. Many of these Creatures may be useful to us, whose Uses are not yet discovered, but reserved for the Generations to come, as the Uses of some we now know are but of late Invention, and were unknown to our Forefathers. And this must needs be so, because, as I said before, the World is too great for any Man, or Generation of Men, by his, or their utmcst Endeavours, to discover and find out all its Store and Furniture, all its Riches and Treasures.
Secondly, As to the Multitude of Individuals in each Kind of Insect. I answer,
1. It is designed to secure the Continuance and Perpetuity of the several Species; which, if they did not multiply exceedingly, scarce any of them could escape the Ravine of so many Enemies as continually assault and prey upon them, but would endanger to be quite destroyed and lost out of the World.
2. This vast Multitude of Insects is useful to Mankind, if not immediately, yet mediately. It cannot be denied, that Birds are of great Use to us ; their Flesh according us a good Part of our Food, and that the most delicate too, and their other Parts Physick, not excepting their very Excrements. Their Feathers serve to stuff our Beds and Pillows, yielding us soft and warm Lodging, which is no small Convenience and Comtort to us, especially in these Northern Pats of the World. Some of them have also been always employed by Military Men in Plumes, to adorn their Crests, and render them formidable to their Enemies. Their Wings and Quills are made use of for Writing-Pens, and to brush and cleanse our Rooms, and their Furniture. Besides, by their melodious Accents they gratify our Ears; by their beautiful Shapes and Colours, they delight our Eyes, being very ornamental to the World, and rendring the Country where the Hedges and Woods are full of them, very pleasant and chearly, which without them would be no less lonely and melancholy. Not to mention the Exercise, Diversion, and Recreation, which some of them give us.
Now Insects supply Land-Birds the chiefest Part of their Sustenance: some, as the entire Genus of Swallows, living wholly upon them, as I could easily make out, did any Man deny or doubt of it: And not Swallows alone, but also Wood-peckers, if not wholly, yet chiefly; and all other sorts of Birds partly, especially
in Winter-time, when Insects are their main Support, as appears by dissecting their Stomachs.
As for young Birds, which are brought up in the Nest by the old, they are fed chiefly, if not solely, by Insects. And therefore for the time when Birds for the most part breed in the Spring, when there are Multitudes of Caterpillars to be found on all Trees and Hedaes. Moreover, it is very remarkable, that of many such Birds, as when grown up, feed almost wholly upon Grain, the voung ones are nourished by Insects. For Example, Pheasants and Partridges, Which are well known to be granivorous Birds, the Young live only or mostly upon Ants Eggs. Now Birds, being of a hot Nature, are very voracious Creatures, and eat abundantly, and therefore there had need be an infinite Number of Insects produced for their Sustenance. Neither do Birds alone, but many sorts of Fishes feed upon Insects, as is well known to Anglers, who bait their Hooks with them. Nay, which is more strange, divers Quadrupeds feed upon Insects, and some live wholly upon them, as two sorts of Tamunduus upon Ants, which therefore are called in English Ant-Bears; the Camelion upon Flies; the Mole upon Earth-Worms: The Badger also lives chiefly upon Beetles, Worms, and other Insects.
Here we may take Notice by the way, That because so many Creatures live upon Ants and their Egggs, Providencc hath so ordered it, that
they should be the most numerous of any Tribe of Insects that we know.
Conformable to this Particular, is the Reason my ingenious and inquisitive Friend Mr. Derham, before remembred, hath given of the Production of such innumerable Multitudes of some Aquatick Insects.
I have often thought, (saith he) that there was some more than ordinary Use in the Creation for such Insects as are vastly numerous; such as the Pulices Aquatici, which are in such Swarms, as to discolour the Waters, and many others: And therefore I have bent my Enquiries to find out the Uses of such Creatures; wherein I have so far succeeded, as to discover, that those vastly small Animalcula, not to be seen without a Microscope, with which the Waters are replete, serve for Food to some others of the small Insects of the Waters, particularly to the Nympha culicaria [Hirsuta it may be called] figured in Swammerdam. For viewing that Nympha one Day, to observe the Motion of its Mouth, and for what Purpose it is in such continual Motion; whether as Fish to get Air, or to suck in Food, or both, I could plainly perceive the Creature to suck in many of these most minute Animalcula, that were swimming briskly about in the Water. Neither yet do these Animalcules serve only for Food to such Nymphae, but also to another to me anonymous Insect of the Waters, of a dark Colour; cleft as it were in sunder, and scarce so big as the smallest Pins Head. These
Insects hunt these Animalcules, and other small Creatures that occur in the Water, and devour them: And I am apt to think, although I have not yet Seen it, that the Pulex aquaticus arborescens liveth upon these or more minute and tender Animalcules, and that it is to catch them that it so leaps in the Water.
This to me seems a wonderfu! Work of God, to provide for the minutest Creatures of the Waters, Food proper for them, that is, minute and tender, and fit for their Organs of Swallowing.
As for noxious Insects, why there should be so many of them produced, if it be demanded,
I answer, 1. That many that are noxious to us, are salutary to other Creatures; and some that are Poison to us, are Food to them. So we see the Poultry-kind feed upon Spiders. Nay, there is scarce any noxious Insect, but one Bird or other eats it, either for Food or Physick. For many, nay, most of those Creatures, whose Bite or Sting is poisonous, may safely be taken entire into the Stomach. And therefore it is no wonder, that not only the Ibis of Egypt, but evcn Storks and Peacocks prey upon and destroy all sorts of Serpents, as well as Locusts and Catcrpillars.
2. Some of the most venomous and pernicious of Insects afford us noble Medicines, as Scorpions, Spiders, and Cantharides.
3. These Insects seldom make use of their offensive Weapons, unless assaulted or provoked
in their own Defence, or to revenge an Injury. Let them but alone, and annoy them not, nor disturb their Young, and unless accidentally, you shall seldom suffer by them.
Lastly, God is Pleased sometimes to make use of them as Scourges, to chaitize or punish wicked Persons or Nations, as he did Herod, and the Egyptians. No Creature so mean and contemptible, but God can, when he Pleases, produce such Armies of them as no humane Force is able to conquer or deptroy, but they shall of a sudden consume and devour up all the Fruits of the Earth, and whatever might serve for the Sustenance of Man, as Locusts have often been observed for to do.
Did these Creatures serve for no other Use, as they do many; yet those that make them an Objection against the Wisdom of God, may (as Dr. Cockburn well notes) as well upbraid the Prudence and Policy of a State for keeping Forces, which generally are made up of very rude and insolent people, which yet are necessary, either to suppress Rebellions, or punish Rebels, and other Disorderly and vicious Persons, and keep the World in quset.</1717>
From that Part of this Discourse which relates to the Body of Man, I shall make these Practical Inferences.
Inference 1. First, Let us give Thanks to Almighty God for the Perfection and Integrity of our Bodies. It would not be amiss to put it into the Eucharistical part of our daily Devotions: "We praise Thee, O God, for the due Number, Shape, and Use of our Limbs and Senses; and in general, of all the parts of our Bodies; we bless thee for the sound and healthful Constitution of them Psalm C. "It is thou that hast made us and not we ourselves; in thy Book were all our Members written."<1717>
The Formation of the Body is the Work of God, and the whole Process thereof attributed to him, Psalm CXXIX. 13,14,15. /1717>
The Mother that bears the Child in her Wmb, is not conscious to any thing that is done there; she understands no more how the Infant is formed, than itself doth. But if God hath bestowed upon us any peculiar Gift or Endowment, wherein we excell others, as Strength, or Beauty, or Activity, we ought to give him special Thanks for it, but not to think the better of ourselves therefore, or despisc them that want it.
Now, because these bodily Perfections, being common Blesings, we are apt not at all to consider them, or not to set a just Value on them; and because the Worth of Things <**224> is best discerned by their Want, it would be useful sometimes to imagine or suppose ourselves, by some Accident, to be deprived of one of our Limbs or Senses, as a Hand, or a Foot, or an Eye; for then we cannot but be Sensible, that we should be in worse Condition
than now we are, and that we should soon find a Difference between two Hands and one Hand, two Eyes and one Eye, and that two excell one as much in Worth as they do in Number; and yet, if we could spare the Use of the lost Part, the Deformity and Unsightliness of such a Defect in the Body, would alone be very grievous to us. Again, which is less, suppose we only, that our Bodies want of their just Magnitude, or that they, or any of our Members are crooked or distorted, or disproportionate to the rest, either in Excess or Defect; nay, which is least of all, that the due Motion of any one Part be perverted, as, but of the Eyes in Squinting, the Eye-Lids in Twinkling, the Tongue in Stammering, these Things are such Blemishes and Offences to us, by making us Gazing-Stocks to others, and Objecs of their Scorn or Derision, that we could be conten to part with a good Part of our Estates to repair such Defeets, or heal such Infirmities.
These Things considered, and duly weighed, would surely <**225> be a great and effectual Motive to excite in us Gratitude for this Integrity of our Bodies, and to esteem it no small Blessing, I say, a Blessing and Favour of God to us; for some there be that want it, and why might not we have been of that Number? God was no way obliged to bestow it upon us!
And as we are to give Thanks for the Integrity of our Body, so are we likewise for the Health of it, and the sound Temper and Constitution of all its Parts and Humours; Health being the principal Blessing of this Life, without which we cannot enjoy, or take Comfort in any thing besides.
Neither are we to give Thanks alone for the first Collation of these Benefits, but also for their Preservation and Continuance. God preserves our Souls in Life, and defends us from Dangers and sad Accidents, which do so beset us on every side, that the greatest Circumspection in the World could not secure us, did not his good Providence continually watch over us. We may be said to walk and converse in the midst of Snares; besides, did we but duly consider the Make and Frame of our Bodies, what a Multitude of minute Parts and Vessels there are in them, and how an Obstruction in one redounds to the Prejudice of the whole, <**226> we could not but wonder how so curious an Engine as Mans Body could be kept in tune one Hour, as we use it, much less hold out so many Years? How it were possible it should endure such Hardships, such Blows, so many Shocks and Concussions, nay, such Violences and Outrages as are offered it by our frequent Excesses, and not be disordered and rendered useless; and acknowledge the transcendent Art and Skill of him who
put it together, as to render it thus firm and durable.
Inference 2. Secondly, Have a care thou dost not by any vicious Practice deface, marr, or destroy the Workmanship of God. So use this Body as to preserve the Form and Comeliness, the Health and Vigour of it.
1. For the Form and Beauty of the Body, which Mankind generally is fond enough of; and which must be acknowledged to be a Natural Endowment and Blessing of God, a thing desirable, which all Men take Complacency in; which renders Persons gracious and acceptable in the Eyes of others; of which yet we do not observe, that Brute Beasts take any Notice at all: Of this I shall observe, that outward Beauty is a Sign of inward; and that handsome Persons are naturally well inclined, till they do either debauch themselves, or are corrupted by others; and then with their Manners they marr their Beauty too. For a Man may observe, and easily discern, that as Persons are better or worse inclined, the very Air of their Visage will alter much; and that vicious Courses, "defacing the inward Pulchritude of the soul, do change even the outward Countenance into an abborrd Hue <margin> Dr. More.</margin> : As is evident in the Vices of Intemperance and Anger, and may, by sagacious Persons, be observed in others also. No better
Cosmeticks than a severe Temperance and Purity, a real and unaffected Modesty and Humility, a gracious Temper and Calmness of Spirit, a Sincere and Universal Charity. No true Beauty without the Signatures of these Graces in the very Countenance. They, therefore, who through the contrary Vices do deface and blot out this natural Character and Impress, and do Violence to their own Inclinations, that sacrifice this Jewel to their Lusts, that reject this Gift of God, and undervalue the Favour of Man, aggravate their Sin and Misery, and purchase Hell at somewhat a dearer Rate than others do. And those that have but a mean Portion of this Gift, are the more obliged by vertuous Practice, not only to preserve, but to improve it. Virtue, (as Cicero observes) if it could be seen with Corporeal Eyes, admirabiles sui Amores excitaret</latin>; it would excite a wonderful Love of itself. By the Signatures it there impresses, it is in some Measure visible in the Faces of those that practise it, and so must needs impart a Beauty and Amiableness to them.
Diogenes Laertius, in the Life of Socrates, tells us, that that Philosopher was wont to advise young Men, <greek>suneches katoptrizesthai </greek>, often to behold themselves in their Looking Glasses or Mirrors. Grammercy, Socrates, that is good Counsel indeed ! Will our young Gentlemen and Ladies be ready to say, we like it
very well, and we practise accordingly ? And it seems we are injuriously taxed and reprehended by Divines, for spending so much time between a Comb and a Glass. Be not over-hasty; take what remains along with you: Mark the End for which the Philosopher exhorts this, <greek>hin ei men kaloi eien, axioi gignointo, ei daischroi paideia tEn duseideian epikaluptoien</greek>, That if they be handsomc, they might approve themselves worthy of their form; but if they be otherwise, they mlay by Discipline and Institution hide their Deformity, And so by their virtuous Behaviour compensate the Hardness of their Favour, and by the Pulchritude of their souls, make up what is wanting in the Beauty of their Bodies. And truly, I believe, a virtuous soul hath Influence upon its Vehicle, and adds a Lustre even to the outward Man, shining forth in the very Face.
2. So use the Body, as to preserve the Health and Vigour, and consequently produce the Life of it. These are things that all Men covet. No more effectual Means for the Maintenance and Preservation of them, than a regular and virtuous Life. That Health is impaired by Vice, daily Experience sufficiently evinceth. I need not spend Time to prove, what no Man doth or can deny. And as for Length of Days, we find by the same Experience, that intemperate and disorderly Persons are, for the most part, Short-livd: Moreover, immoderate Cares and Anxiety are observed
suddenly to bring gray Hairs upon Men, which are usually the Signs and Forerunners of Death. And, therefore, the way to live long, must needs be in all Points to use our Bodies, so as is most agreeable to the Rules of Temperance, and Purity, and right Reason. Every Violence offered to it, weakens and impairs it, and renders it less durable and lasting. One Means there is, which Physicians take Notice of, as very effectual for the Preservation of Health, which I cannot here omit, that is, a quset and chearful Mind, not afflicted with violent Passions, or distracted with immoderate Cares; for these have a great and ill Influence upon the Body. Now, how a Man can have a quset and chearful Mind under a great Burthen and Load of Guilt, I know not, unless he be very Ignorant, or have a seared Conscience. It concerns us, therefore, even upon this Account, to be careful of our Conversations, and to keep our Consciences void of Offence, both toward God, and toward Men.
Inser. 3. Thirdly, Did God make the Body ? Let him have the Service of it, Rom. xii. 1. "I beseech you, Brethren, by the Mercies of God, that you present your Bodies a living Sacrifice, Holy, acceptable unto God, which is your reasonable Service. How we should do that, St. Chrysostom tells us in his Commentary upon this Place, <greek>
, etc. Let the Eye behold no evil thing, and it is madc a Sacrifice; let the Tongue speak no filthy Word, and it becomes an Oblation: Let the Hand do no unlawful action, and you render it a Holocaust. Yet it was not enough thus to restrain them from Evil; but they must also be cmployed and exercised in doing that which is good: the Hand in giving Alms, the Tongue in blessing them that curse us and despitefully use us, the Ear in hearkening to divine Lectures and Discourses,
1 Cor. vi. 20. "Glorify God in yaus Body, or with your Body, and in your Spirits, which are Gods" ; and that not by Redemption only, of which the Apostle there speaks, but by Creation also. Rom. vi. 13. "Neither yield ye your Members as Instruments of Unrighteousness unto Sin, but as Instruments of Righteoujness unto God." And again, ver. 19. "Even so now yield your Members Servants of Righteousness unto Holiness." I shall Instance in two Members, which are especially to be guarded and restrained from Evil, and employed in the Service of God. <**227>
First, The Eye. We must turn away our Eyes from beholding Vanity, as David prayed God would his, Psalm. cxix. 37. We must "make a Covenant with our Eyes", as Job did, Job xxxi. 1. These are the windows that let in exteriour Objects to the soul: By these the
Heart is affected; this way Sin entered first into the World. Our first Parent saw, that the Tree and its Fruit was pleasant to the Eyes, and so was invited to take and eat it. There are four Sins especially for which the Eye is noted, as either discovering themselves in the Eyes, or whose Temptations enter in by, and so give Denomination to the Eye.
1. There is a proud Eye, Prov. xix. 13. "Therc is a Generation, O how lofty are their Eyes ! And their Eye-lids are lifted up", Chap. vi. 17. A proud Look is reckoned the First of those Things that God hates, Psalm. xviii. 27 "God (the Psalmist saith) will bring down proud or high Looks, Psalm. ci. 5. "Him that hath a high Look and a proud Heart (saith David) I will not suffer." And in Psalm. cxxxi. 1. he saith of himself, that "his Heart is not haughty, nor his Eyes lofty". By which Places it appeareth that Pride sheweth forth itself in the Eyes especially, and that they are, as it were, the Seat or Throne of it. <**228>
2. There is a wanton Eye, which the Prophet Isaish speaks of in his third Chapter, at the 16th Verse, Because the Daughters of Jerusalem walk with stretched-out Necks, and wanton Eyes. The Apostle Peter, in his Second Epistle, ii. 24. mentions "Eyes full of Adultery"; For by these Casements enter in such Objects, as
may provoke and stir up adulterous Thoughts in the Mind, as they did in Davids; and likewise impure Thoughts conceived in the Heart, may discover themselves by the Motions of the Eye. And, therefore, in this respect we should do well, with holy Job, to make a Covenant with our Eyes; not to gaze upon any Objects which may tempt us to any inordinate Appetite or Desire. For our Saviour tells us, it were better to pluck out our right eye, than that it should be an offence to us: Which I suppose refers to this Matter, because it immediately follows those Words, "He that looketh upon a Woman to lust after her, hath already committed Adultery with her in his Heart."
3. There is a covetous Eye. By Covetousness, I understand, not only a Desiring what is another Mans, which is forbidden in the Tenth Commandment, but also an inordinate Desire of Riches, which the Apostle John seems to understand in his First Epistle, ii. 16. "by the Lust of the Eye". And Covetousness may well be called the Lust of the Eye, because, 1. The Temptation or tempting Object enters by the Eye. So the seeing the Wedge of Gold, and Babylonian Garment, stirred up the covetous Desire in Achan. 2. Because all the Fruit a Man reaps of Riches, more than will furnish his Necessities and Conveniencies, is the Feeding of his Eye, or the Pleasure he takes in
the beholding of them, Eccles. v. 11. "When Goods increase, &c. what Good is there to the Owners thereof, saving the Beholding them with their Eyes? "
4. There is an envious Eye, which, by our Saviour, is called an evil Eye, Matth. xx. 15 ; "Is thine Eye evil because I am good? " That is, enviest thou thy Brother, because I am kind to him. And, vii. 22. One of those evil Things which proceed out of the Heart and defile a Man, is an evil Eye. Envy is a repining at the Prosperity or good of another, or Anger and Displeasure at any Good of another which we want, or any Advantage another hath above us. As in the Parable of the Labourers in the Vineyard, those that came in first envied the last, not because they received more than they but because they received equal Wages for less Time. Those that are subject to this Vice cannot endure to see another Man thrive, and are apt to think his Condition better than theirs when indeed it is not. <**230>
Let us then so govern our Eyes, that we discover by them none of these Vices. Let the Humility and Purity of our Minds appear even in our outward Looks. Let neither Pride nor Lust manifest themselves in the Posture or Motions of our eyes. Let us have a care, that these Members be neither the Inlets nor Outlets of any of the fore-mentioned Vices; that they neither give Admitsion to the Temptation,
nor be expressive of the Conception of them. Let us employ them in reading the Word of God, and other Books, for the Increase of our Knowledge, and Direction of our Practice; in diligently viewing and contemplating the Works of the Creation, that we may discern and admire the Footsteps of the Divine Wisdom easily to be traced in the Formation, Disposition, and Designations of them. Let us take notice of any extraordinary Events and Effects of Gods Providence towards ourselves or others, Personal or National: That as they are the issues of his Mercy or Justice, they may stir up suitable Affections in us of Thankfulness or Fear. Let those sad and miserable objects that present themselves to our Sights move us to Pity and Commiseration: And let our Eyes sometimes be exercised in Weeping for the Miseries and Calamities of others, but especially for our own and their Sins. <**231>
Secondly, Another Member I shall mention is the Tongue, which, as it is the chiet Instrument of Speech, so it may be well or ill employed in the Exercise of that Action, and therefore stands in need of Direction and Restraint. I remember I once heard from an ingenious Anatomist of Padua this Observation, That there are but two Members in the Body that have a natural Bridle, both which do very much need it; the Tongue, and another I shall not name. The Signification whereof
may be, that they are not to be let loose, but diligently curbed and held in. <*1717> That the Tongue needs a Bridle, you will readily grant, if you read what the Apostle ? hath written of it, CZ~np sii. 6. Xxe Tongue is a Fire, # Wcrlhl of lzliquit.y: Sa is the Lozlg;?zze among our Rlemberr, that it defleth the.Je whole Body, and retteth on f7;e the Coue^0e of Nature, and is Jbet on Fire of Hell. FoF every Kind of Beaser, and of Birds) and of Seepents, and of TzJings in the Sea, is tamed, and hath been tanted of Mankind; but the Tongue cas1 7z0 Man tame; it is an tinruly Evil, full of deadly Poison. </1717>
For the better Government of the Tongue, I shall note some Vices of Speech, which must carefully be avoided. First of all, Loquacity, or Garrulity. This the Contrivance of our Mouths suggests to us. Our Tongues are fenced and guarded with a double Wall, or Mound of Lips and Teeth, that our Words might not rashly and unadvisedly slip out. Then Nature hath furnished us with two Ears, and but one Tongue, to intimate, that we must hear twice so much as we speak. Why Loquacity is to be avoided, the Wise Man gives us a sufficient Reason, Prov. x. 19. "In the multitude of Words there wanteth not Sin." And, Eccles. v. 7. "In many Words there are divers vanities." To which we may add another, of great Force <**232> with most Men, viz. That it hath been always esteemed an Effect and Argument of Folly, Eccles. v. 3. "A Fools Voice is known by multitude
of Words." And on the contrary, to be of few Words is a sign of Wisdom and he that is wise enough to be silent, though a Fool, may pass undiscovered. Besides all this, a talkative Person must needs be impertinent, and speak many idle Words, and so render himself burthensome and odious to Company; and may perchance run himself upon great Inconveniencies, by blabbing out his own or others Secrets; for a Word once uttered, fugit irrevocabile, is irrevocable, whatever the Consequence of it be. Great need, therefore, have we to set a Watch over our Mouthr, and to keep the Door of our Lips, <1717> Psalm cxli. 3. </1717> and not suffer our Tongues <greek> <margin>runs before the understanding or wit</margin> as Socrates phraseth it
Secondly, Lying, or false Speaking. There is difference between Mentiri and Mendacium dicere, that is, Lying, and speaking of an Untruth, or thing that is false. Mentiri, is contra mentem ire, which though it be no good Etymology of the Word, is a good Notion of the Thing; that is, to go against ones Mind, or speak what one does not think. <greek> , as Homer expresses it, to conceal one thing in the Mind, and speak another with the <**233> Tongue. Hence a Man may speak an Untruth,
and yet not lye, when he thinks he speaks the Truth; and on the contrary, may speak what is materially true, and yet lye, when he speaks what he thinks not to be True. The Tongue was made to be the Index of the Mind, Speech the Interpreter of Thought; therefore there ought to be a perfect Harmony and Agreement between these two. so that Lying is a great Abuse of Speech, and a perverting the very End of it, which was to communicate our thoughts one to another. It hath also an ill Principle, for the most part proceeding either from Baseness of Spirit, or Cowardice, as in them that have comnlitted a Fault and deny it, for fear of Punishment or Rebuke: <1717> And, therefore, the ancient Persians, as Xenophon tells us in his Kup8 7: . made it one of the three T hings they diligently taught thels Claildren; which lrrere ~XtEVE~V, Zx2to5evErvs xa aaas veiv- To Hide, to Shoot, and to Jpeak the 7rzsth: </1717> Or from Covetousness, as in Tradesmen, who falsly commend their Commodities, that they may vend them for a greater Price; or from Vanity and Vain Glory, in them who falsly boast of any Quality or Action of their own. It is odious both to God and Man. To God, Prov. vi. 17. "A Lying Tongue" is one of those six or seven Things that are an "Abomination to Him". To Men, as Homer witnesseth in the Verse preceding the fore-quoted.
"He that tells Lies is as hateful to me, as the Gates of Hell or Death." -
The Practice of Lying is a Diabolical Exercise, and they that use it are the Devils Children, as our Saviour tells us, John viii. 44. "Ye are of your Father the Devil, &c. for he is a Lyar, and the Father of it." And, lastly, it is a Sin that excludes out of Heaven, and depresses the soul into Hell, Rev. xxi. 8. "All Liars shall have their part in the Lake which burns with Fire and Brimstone, which is the second Death."
Thirdly, another Vice or Abuse of Speech, or vicious Action to which the Tongue is Instrumental, is slandering; that is, raising a false Report of any Man tending to his Defamation. This might have been comprehended under the former Head, being but a Kind of Lying proceeding from Enmity or Ill-Will. It is a very great Injury to our Neighbour; Mens Reputation being as dear to them as Life itself: so that it is grown to be a Proverb among the Vulgar, "Take away my good Name and take away tny Life." And that which enhances this Injury, is that it is irreparable. We cannot, by any contrary Declaration clear the Innocency of our Neighbour, as wholly to extirpate the preconceived Opinion out of the Minds of those to whom our Confession
comes; and many will remain whom the Calumny hath <**235> reachd, to whom the Vindication probably will not extend; the Pravity of Mans Nature being more apt to spread and divulge an ill Report, than to stop and silence it. I might Instance in Flattering of others, and boasting of ourselves for two Abuses of Speech; but they may both be referred to Lying, the one to Please others, and puff them up with self-Conceit, and a false Opinion, that they have some excellent Quality or Endowment, which they want, or have not in such a Degree, or that they are better thought of by others, than indeed they are, and more honoured: The other, to gain more Honour than is due to ourselves <1691 to them>.
<1717> Neither yet is it Boasting only of what we have not, but also what we have, condemned and disallowed by God and Men, as being contrary to that Humility and Modesy that ought to be in us, Prov. xxvii, 2. "Let another Man praise thee, and not thine own Mouth; a Stranger, and not thine own Lips." And moralists proceed so far as to censure all unnecessary <greek>periautologia</greek>, that is, Talking of a Mans self. </1717>
Fourthly, obscene and impure Words are another vicious Effect of the Tongue. Those are principally the <greek>sarko logoi</greek>, rotten Speeches the Apostle speaks of, Eph. v. 29. Such as chaste Ears abhor, which tend only to the depraving and corrupting the Hearers : and are to be studiously
and carefully avoided by all that pretend to Christianity, Eph. v. 3. "But Fornication, and all Uncleanness, let it not be once named among you."
Fifthly, Cursing, and railing or reviling Words, are also a great Abuse of Speech, and outrageous Effects and Expressions of Malice and Wickedness, Psalm. x. 7. The Psalmist makes it part of the Character of a wicked <**236> Man, that "His Mouth is full of Cursing." Which Passage we have quoted by the Apostle, Rom. iii. 14. "Whose Mouth is full of cursing and Bitterness."
Sixthly, Swearing, and irreverently using the Name of God in common Discourse and Converse, is another Abuse of the Tongue; to which I might add vehement Asseverations upon slight and trivial occasions. I do not deny, but in a Matter of Weight and Moment, wlaich will bear out such Attestation, and where Belief will not be obtained without them, and yet it may much import the Hearer or Speaker that his Words be believed, or where the Hearer would not otherwise think the Matter so momentous or important as indeed it is, Protestations and Asseverations, yea, Oaths may lawfully be used. But to call God to witness to an Untruth or a Lye perhaps, or to appeal to Him on every trivial Occasion, in common Discourse, customarily, without any
Consideration of what we say, is one of the highest Indignities and Affronts that can be offered him, being a Sin to which there is no Temptation: For it is so far from gaining Belief, (which is the only Thing that can with any shew of Reason be pleaded for it) that it rather creates Diffidence and Distrust. For as <latin>"multa fidem promissa levant", so "multa Juramenta"</latin> <**237> too; it being become a Proverb, "He that will Swear will Lie." And good Reason there is for it, for he that scruples not the Breach of one of Gods Commands, is not likely to make Conscience of the Violation of another.
Lastly, (For I will name no more) Scurrilous Words, Scoffing, and Jeering, Flouting and Taunting, are to be censured as Vicious Abuses of Speech.
This Scoffing and Derision proceeds from Contempt, and that of all Injuries Men do most impatiently bear; nothing offends more or wounds deeper: And, therefore, what greater Violation of that general Rule of Christian Practice, "to do to others as we would they should do unto us?" This Injury of being derided, the Psalmist himself complains of, Psalm lxix. 11,12. "I became a Proverb to them. They that sit in the Gate, speak against me, and I was the song of the Drunkards." And, Psalm xxxv. 15. according to the Church Translation, "The very Abjects came together against me unawares, making Mows at me, and ceased
not"; and the Prophet Jeremy, Jer. xx. 7. "I am in Derision daily, every one mocketh me." And though there may be some Wit shewn in Scoffing and Jesting upon others, yet is it a practice inconsistent with true Wisdom. The Scorner and the Wise Man are frequently <**238> opposed in Scripture, Prov. ix. 8. and Chap. xiii. 1. etc. It is a Proverbial Saying, "The greatest Clerks are not always the wisest men". I think the Saying might as often be verified of the greatest Wits. Scorning, in that Gradation in the first Psalm, is set down as the highest Step of Wickededness. And Solomon tells us, "That judgments are prepared for the Scorners".
You will say to me, How then must our Tongues be employed ; I answer,
1. In Praises and Thanksgiving unto Ged, Psalm xxxv. 28. "And my tonhue shall speak of thy Righteousness and of thy Praises all the day long". Parallel whereto, is verse 24 of Psalm lxxi. Indeed, the Book of Psalms is, in a great Measure, but an Exercise of, or Exhortation for this Duty.
2. We must exercise our Tongues in talking of all his wondrous Works; Psalm cxl. 5,6. "I will speak of the glorious Honour of thy Majesty, and of thy wondrous Works".
3. In Prayer to God.
4. In Confession of Him, and his Religion, and publickly owning it before Men, whatever the Hazard be.
5. In Teaching, Instructing, and Counselling of others.
6. In Exhorting them.
7. In Comforting them that need it.
8. In Reproving them.
All which Particulars I might enlarge upon; but because they come in here only as they refer to the Tongue, <**239> it may suffice to have mentioned them summarily.
Thirdly, Let us hence learn duly to prize and value our Souls. Is the Body such a rare Piece, what then is the Soul ? The Body is but the Husk or Shell, the soul is the Kernel; the Body is but the Cask, the Soul the precious Liquor contained in it; the Body is But the Cabinet, the Soul the Jewel; the Body is but the Ship or Vessel, the Soul the Pilot; the Body is but the Tabernacle, and a poor Clay Tabernacle or Cottage too, the Soul the Inhabitant ; the Body is but the Machine or Engine, the Soul that <greek> , that actuates and quickens it; the Body is but the dark Lantern, the Soul or Spirit is the Candle of the Lord that burns in it: And seeing there is such Difference between the Soul and the Body in respect of Excellency, surely our better Part challenges our greater Care and Diligence to make Provision for it. Bodily Provision is but half Provision, it is but for one Part of a Man, and that the meaner and more ignoble too, if we consider only the Time of this life; but if we consider a future Estate of endless Duration after this Life, then Bodily Provision will appear to be, I do not say quarter Provision, but no Provision at all in Comparison; there being no Proportion <**240>
between so short a Period of Time, and the infinite Ages of Eternity. Let us not then be so foolish, as to employ all our Thoughts, and bestow all our Time and Pains about cherishing, accommodating and gratifying our Bodies, in "making Provision for the Flesh to Assist the Lust thereof", as the Apostle phraseth it; and suffer our souls to lie by neglected, in a miserable, and poor, and blind, and naked Condition. Some Philosophers will not allow the Body to be an essential Part of Man, but only the Vessel or Vehicle of the soul; <latin>Anima cuiusque est quisque</latin> : The soul is the Man. Though I would not be so unequal to it, yet I must needs acknowledge it to be but an inferiour Part: It is therefore so to be treated, so dieted and provided, as to render it most calm and compliant with the soul, most tractable and obsequious to the Dictates of Reason; not so pampered and indulged, as to encourage it to cast its Rider, and to take the Reins into its own Hand, and usurp Dominion over the better Part, the <greek>to hEg??</greek>, to sink and depress it into a sordid Compliance with its own Lusts, <latin>Atque assigere humi Divinae particulam aurae</latin>.
This is our Duty, but alas what is our Practice ? Our great Partiality towards our Bodies, and Neglect of our souls, shews <**241> clearly which Part we prefer. We are careful enough of wounding or maiming our Bodies, but we make bold to lash and wound our
Souls daily; for every Sin we commit, being contrary to its Nature, is a real Stripe, yea a mortal Wound to the soul, and we shall find it to be so, if our Consciences be once awakened to feel the Sting and Smart of it. We are industrious enough to preserve our Bodies from Slavery and Thraldom, but we make nothing of suffering our souls to be Slaves and Drudges to our Lusts, and to live in the vilest Bondage to the most degenerate of Creatures, the devil: We are thrifty and provident enough not to part with anything that may be serviceable to our Bodies under a good Consideration, and we so esteem them, as that we will part with all we have for the Life of them; but we make little Account of what is most beneficial to our souls, the means of Grace and Salvation, the Word of God and Duties of his Worship and Service; nay, we can be content to sell our souls themselves for a Trifle, for a Thing of nothing, yea for what is worse than nothing, the Satisfying of an inordinate and unreasonable Appetite or Passion. We highly esteem and stand much upon our Nobility, our Birth and Breeding, though we derive nothing <**242> from our Ancestors but our Bodies and Corporeal Qualities ; and it is useful so far to value and improve this Advantage, as to provoke us to imitate the good Examples of our Progenitors, not to degenerate from them, nor to do any thing unworthy of our Breeding; and yet the divine
Original of our Souls, which are Beams from the Father of Light, and the immediate Offpring of God himself, <greek>, hath little Influence upon us to engage us to walk worthily of our Extraction, and to do nothing that is Base or ignoble, and unsuitable to the Dignity of our Birth.
You will say, how shall we manifest our Care of our Souls? What shall we do for them? I Answer, the same we do for our Bodies.
First, We feed our Bodies, our Souls are also to be fed: The Food of the Soul is Knowledge, especially Knowledge in the Things of God, and the Things that concern its Eternal Peace and Happiness; the Doctrine of Christianity, the Word of God read and preached, 1 Pet. ii. 2. "As new born Babes desire the sincere Milk of the Word, that ye may grow thereby" Heb. v. 12. The Apostle speaks both of Milk and of strong Meat. Milk he there calls the Principles of the Doctrine of Christ: And again, 1 Cor. ii. 3. "I have fed you with Milk and <**243> not with Meat, for hitherto ye were not able to bear it". So we see in the Apostles Phrase, Feeding of the Flock, is Teaching and Intructing of them. Knowledge is the Foundation of Practice; it is impossible to do Gods Will before we know it; the Word must be received into an honest and good heart and
understood, before any Fruit can be brought forth.
Secondly, We heal and cure our Bodies, when they are inwardly sick, or outwardly harmed: Sin is the Sickness of the Soul, Matth. ix. 12. "They that be whole need not a Physician, but they that be sick", saith our Saviour by way of Similitude, which he explains in the next Verse, "I am come not to call the Righteous, but Sinners to Repentance." For the Cure of this Disease, an humble, serious, hearty Repentance, is the only Physick; not to expiate the guilt of it, but to qualify us to partake of the Benefit of that Atonement which our Saviour Christ hath made, by the Sacrifice of Himself, and restore us to the Favour of God, which we had forfeited, it being as much as in us lies an Undoing again what we have done.
Thirdly, We cloath and adorn our Bodies, <1717> indeed too much Time and too many Thoughts we bestow upon that; </1717> our Souls also are to be cloathed with holy and Virtuous Habits, and adorned with good Works, 1 Pet. v. 5. "Be ye cloathed <**244> with Humility"; And in the same Epistle, Chap. ii. 2. he exhorts Women to "adorn themselves, not with that outward adorning of plaiting the Hair, and of wearing Gold", etc. but with "the Ornament of a meek and quiet Spirit, which is in the Sight of God of great Price".
And in Rev. xix. 8. The Righteousness of the Saints" is called "fine Linen". And the Saints are said to be "cloathed in white Raiment", Matth. xxiii. 11. Works of Righteousness, and a Conversation becoming the Gospel, is called "a wedding Garment", Coloss iii. 10. "Put on the new Man". And again, "Put on therefore as the Elect of God, Bowels of Mercy, Meekness", &c. On the contrary vicious Habits and sinful Actions are compared to Filthy Garments. So, Zech. iii. 3. "Joshua" the High-Priest is said to be "cloathed with filthy Garments"; which in the next Verse are interpreted his Iniquities, either Personal, or of the People whom he represented, "I have caused thy Iniquity to pass from thec, and will cloath thee with Change of Raiment".
Fourthly, We arm and defend our Bodies. And our Souls have as much Need of Armour as they: For the Life of a Christian is a continual Warfare; and we have potent and vigilant Enemies to encounter withal; the Devil, the World, and this corrupt Flesh we carry about with us. We <**244> had need, therefore, to take to us the Christian Panoply, to "Put on the whole armour of God, that we may withstand in the evil day, and having done all may stand; having our Loins girt with Truth, and having the breast-plate of righteousness, and our feet shod with the preparation of the Gospel of Peace. Above all taking the shield of
Faith, and for an Helmet, the Hope of Salvation, and the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God", Eph. vi. 13,14, etc.
He that with his Christian Armour manfully fights against and repels the Temptations and Assaults of his Spiritual Enemies; he that keeps his Garments pure, and his Conscience void of Offence towards God and towards Man, shall enjoy perfect Peace here, and Assurance for ever. Tacitus saith of the Finns, a Northern People, that they were <latin>securi adversus homines, securi adversus Deos</latin>. They need not fear what God or Man could do to them, because they were in as bad a Condition as could consist with living in the World: They could not be banished into a worse Country, nor put into worse Circumstances than they were in already. I might say of the Man that keeps a good Conscience, that he is secure against God and Man; not in that Sense the Finni were; but secure of any Evil befalling him, from either. <**246> God can do him no Harm, not for want of Power, but for want of Will, which is regulated by his Truth and Justice. He is also secure in respect of Men, because he is under the Protection of the Almighty: And if any there be that would do him harm, they shall either be restrained by the Divine Providence, or if they be permitted to injure him, it shall tend only to the Exercise and Improvement of his Faith and Patience, and enhancing his future
Reward at that great Day, when the Almighty shall dispense Aureolae to those Champions who have signalized their Valour and Fidelity by Heroick Actions, or patient Sufferings of unworthy Things for his Sake.
3. A good Conscience not only secures a Man from God and Men, but from himself too. "There is no Peace to the Wicked", saith my God, no inward Peace. Such a Man is at Odds with himself. For the Commandments of God being agreeable to the Nature of Man, and perfectly conformable to the Dictates of right Reason; Mans judgment gives Sentence with the Divine Law, and condemns him when he violates any of them; and so the Sinner becomes an <latin> Heautontimorumenos </latin>, a Tormentor of himself. <latin>Prima est haec ultio, quod se Judice nemo nocens absolvitur </latin>; No guilt.y Person is absolved at his own Tribunal, himself being Judge. <**247>
Neither let any profligate Person, who hath bidden Defiance to his Conscience, and is at War with himself; think to take Sanctuary in Atheism, and because it imports him highly there should be no God, stoutly deny that there is any. For First, supposing that the Existence of a Deity were not demonstrably or infallibly proved, (as it most certainly is,) yet he cannot be sure of the contrary, that there is none. "For no Man can be sure of a pure Negative, namely, that such a thing is no, unless he will either pretend to have a certain knowledge
of all Things that are or may be, than which nothing can be more monstrously and ridiculously arrogant; or else, unless he be be sure that the Being of what he denies doth imply a Contradiction; for which there is not the least Colour in this Case." The true Notion of God consisting in this. "That he is a Being of all possible Perfection", That I may borrow my Lord Bishop of Chesters Words, in his Discourse of Natural Religion, page 94.
Now, if he be not sure there is no Deity, he cannot be without some Suepicion and Fear that there may be one.
"Secondly, If there should be a Deity, so Holy and Just and Powerful as is supposed, what Vengeance and Indignation <**248> may such vile miscreants and rebels expect, who have made it their Business to banish Him out of the World, who is the great Creator and Governour of it; to undermine his Being, and eradicate all Notions of Him out of their own and other Mens Minds; to provoke his Creatures and Vassals to a Contempt of him, a sleighting of his Fear and Worship, as being but such imaginary Chimaeras, as are fit only to keep Fools in awe. Certainly as this is the highest Provocation that any Man can be guilty of, so shall it be punishd with the forest Vengeance."
Now a slender Suspicion of the Existence of a Being, the Denial whereof is of so sad Consequence, must needs disturb the Atheists Thoughts, and fill him with Fears, and qualify
and allay all his Pleasiures and Enjoyments, and render him miserable even in this Life.
"But on the other side, he that believes and owns a God, if there should be none, is in no danger of any bad Consequent. For all the inconvenience of this Belief will be, that he may be hereby occasioned to tye himself up to some needless Restraints during this short time of his Life, wherein notwithstanding there is, as to the present, much Peace, Quiet, and Safety: And, as to the future, his Error shall die with him, there being none to call him to an Accouut for his Miaake." Thus far the Bishop.
To which I shall add, that he not only suffers no Damage, but reaps a considerable Benefit from this Mistake; for during this Life he enjoys a pleasant Dream or Fancy of a future blessed Estate, with the Thoughts and Expectation whereof, he solaces himself and agreeably entertains his Time; and is in no Danger of being ever awakened out of it, and convinced of his Error and Folly, Death making a full End of him.